Co-creation Through Technology: Dimensions of Social Connectedness

  • Barbara Neuhofer
  • Dimitrios Buhalis
  • Adele Ladkin
Conference paper

Abstract

With the increasing mobility and the emergence of social information and communication technologies, the tourist has turned into a connected consumer. In using the range of technologies available, tourists are now able to connect with their social circles to engage, share and co-create their tourist experiences online. While the significance of co-creation has been widely recognised, there is a major gap in understanding on what levels technology-facilitated co-creation can occur. This paper therefore aims to uncover the dimensions of social connectedness and develop a differentiated knowledge of how exactly tourists co-create through ICTs. The findings reveal six distinct dimensions that can be positioned on a social intensity continuum, ranging from disconnection to social co-living of the experience. In revealing social connectedness to everyday life and the home environment, this study highlights key implications for the existing theoretical understanding of tourist experience portrayed as a reversal from of the everyday life. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

Keywords

Connected consumer ICTs Co-creation Social connectedness Everyday life 

References

  1. Arnould, E. J., Price, L. L., & Malshe, A. (2006). Toward a cultural resource-based theory of the customer. In R. F. Lusch & S. L. Vargo (Eds.), The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate and directions (pp. 320–333). Armonk, New York: ME Sharpe.Google Scholar
  2. Binkhorst, E., & Den Dekker, T. (2009). Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(2/3), 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chathoth, P., Altinay, L., Harrington, R. J., Okumus, F., & Chan, E. S. (2013). Co-production versus co-creation: A process based continuum in the hotel service context. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cohen, E. (1979). A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology, 13(2), 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Egger, R., & Buhalis, D. (2008). eTourism case studies: Management and marketing issues. Burlington: Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. Fotis, J., Buhalis, D., & Rossides, N. (2011). Social media impact on holiday travel planning: The case of the Russian and the FSU markets. International Journal of Online Marketing, 1(4), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Green, N. (2002). On the move: Technology, mobility, and the mediation of social time and space. The Information Society, 18(4), 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gretzel, U., & Jamal, T. (2009). Conceptualizing the creative tourist class: Technology, mobility, and tourism experiences. Tourism Analysis, 14(4), 471–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grönroos, C. (2008). Service logic revised: Who creates value? And who co-creates? European Business Review, 20(4), 298–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heinonen, K., Strandvik, T., & Voima, P. (2013). Customer dominant value formation in service. European Business Review, 25(2), 104–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Helkkula, A., Kelleher, C., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Characterizing value as an experience. Journal of Service Research, 15(1), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holloway, I., & Brown, L. (2012). Essentials of a qualitative doctorate. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Kim, J., & Tussyadiah, I. P. (2013). Social networking and social support in tourism experience: The moderating role of online self-presentation strategies. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(1), 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Larsen, S. (2007). Aspects of a psychology of the tourist experience. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1), 7–18.Google Scholar
  17. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2012). Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1–2), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2013). High tech for high touch experiences: A case study from the hospitality industry. In L. Cantoni & Z. Xiang (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2012 (pp. 290–301). Austria: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramaswamy, V. (2009). Co-creation of value—towards an expanded paradigm of value creation. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 26(6), 11–17.Google Scholar
  23. Ramaswamy, V., & Gouillart, F. (2008). Co-creating strategy with experience co-creation. Balanced Scorecard Report, 1–3.Google Scholar
  24. Ritzer, G., & Jurgenson, N. (2010). Production, consumption prosumption. Journal of Consumer Culture, 10(1), 13–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Robson, C. (1993). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner researchers. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  26. Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2004). Qualitative interviewing the art of hearing data. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Sigala, M. (2009). E-service quality and Web 2.0: Expanding quality models to include customer participation and inter-customer support. The Service Industries Journal, 29(10), 1341–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tussyadiah, I. P., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2009). Mediating the tourist experiences access to places via shared videos. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang, Y., Yu, Q., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2002). Defining the virtual tourist community: Implications for tourism marketing. Tourism Management, 23(4), 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang, D., Park, S., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2012). The role of smart phones in mediating the touristic experience. Journal of Travel Research, 51(4), 371–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang, D., Park, S., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2013). Transforming the travel experience: The use of smartphones for travel. In L. Cantoni & Z. Xiang (Eds.), Information and communication Technologies in tourism 2012 (pp. 58–69). Austria: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 31(2), 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Neuhofer
    • 1
  • Dimitrios Buhalis
    • 1
  • Adele Ladkin
    • 1
  1. 1.eTourismLabBournemouth UniversityBournemouthUK

Personalised recommendations