The Role of Critical Infrastructures’ Interdependencies on the Impacts Caused by Natural Disasters

  • Ana Laugé
  • Josune Hernantes
  • Jose Mari Sarriegi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8328)


Recent natural disasters have highlighted society’s dependency on the correct functioning of critical infrastructures (CIs). The existing interdependencies among CIs complicate matters further, since a failure in a CI can spread through cascading effects to other infrastructures or sectors. Thus society’s welfare becomes severely affected, complicating emergency response and increasing the total impact of natural disasters. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the important role that affected CIs have on the overall impact of a natural disaster. We have developed a simulation model that represents a huge storm affecting the energy system, transport and food CIs on a small island. Through this simulation model we can show the effects associated with CIs and the effects of applying crisis management policies.


Critical infrastructure natural disaster interdependencies crisis management impact analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chang, S.E., McDaniels, T.L., Mikawoz, J., Peterson, K.: Infrastructure failure interdependencies in extreme events: Power outage consequences in the 1998 ice storm. Nat. Hazards 41(2), 337–358 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zimmerman, R.: Mass transit infrastructure and urban health. J. Urban Health 82(1) (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collier, S., Lakoff, A.: The vulnerability of vital systems: How ‘critical infrastructure’ became a security problem. In: Dunn, M., Kristensen, K.S. (eds.) The Politics of Securing the Homeland: Critical Infrastructure, Risk and Securitisation, pp. 40–62. Routledge (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Croope, S.V., McNeil, S.: Improving resilience of critical infrastructure systems postdisaster. J. Transportation Research Board 2234(1), 3–13 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dudenhoeffer, D.D., Permann, M.R., Manic, M.: CIMS: A framework for infrastructure interdependency modeling and analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 478–485 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zimmerman, R.: Understanding the implications of critical infrastructure interdependencies for water. In: Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peerenboom, J.P., Fisher, R.E., Rinaldi, S.M., Kelly, T.K.: Studying the chain reaction. EEI (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rinaldi, S.M.: Modeling and simulating critical infrastructures and their interdependencies. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, vol. 8 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pederson, P., Dudenhoeffer, D., Hartley, S., Permann, M.: Critical infrastructure interdependency modeling: A survey of US and international research. Idaho Idaho National Laboratory. INL/EXT-06-11464 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oliva, G., Panzieri, S., Setola, R.: Fuzzy dynamic input–output inoperability model. IJCIP 4(3-4), 165–175 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eusgeld, I., Nan, C., Dietz, S.: “System-of-systems” approach for interdependent critical infrastructures. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 96(6), 679–686 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sarriegi, J.M., Sveen, F.O., Torres, J., Gonzalez, J.J.: Towards a research framework for critical infrastructure interdependencies. IJEM 5(3), 235–249 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sarriegi, J.M., Sveen, F.O., Torres, J.M., Gonzalez, J.J.: Adaptation of modelling paradigms to the CIs interdependencies problem. Critical Information Infrastructure Security 5508/2009, 295 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boin, A., McConnell, A.: Preparing for critical infrastructure breakdowns: The limits of crisis management and the need for resilience. J. Contingencies Crisis Manage. 15(1), 50–59 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Streips, K., Simpson, D.M.: Critical infrastructure failure in a natural disaster: Initial notes comparing kobe and katrina. Louisville (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Min, H.S.J., Beyeler, W., Brown, T., Son, Y.J., Jones, A.T.: Toward modeling and simulation of critical national infrastructure interdependencies. IIE Transactions 39(1), 57–71 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oliva, G., Panzieri, S., Setola, R.: Online distributed interdependency estimation for critical infrastructures. In: 2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference (CDC-ECC), pp. 7224–7229 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Commission of the European Communities: Green paper on a european programme for critical infrastructure protection. Brussels (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Council of the European Union: COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2008/114/EC of 8 december 2008 on the identification and designation of european critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. European Union (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oliva, G., Panzieri, S., Setola, R.: Agent-based input-output interdependency model. IJCIP 3(2), 76–82 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stapelberg, R.F.: Infrastructure systems interdependencies and risk informed decision making (RIDM): Impact scenario analysis of infrastructure risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics 6(5), 21–27 (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conrad, S.H., LeClaire, R.J., O’Reilly, G.P., Uzunalioglu, H.: Critical national infrastructure reliability modeling and analysis. Bell Labs Technical Journal 11(3), 57–71 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    President’s Comission on Critical Infrastructure Protection: Critical foundations: Protecting america’s infrastructures. Washington (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rinaldi, S.M., Peerenboom, J.P., Kelly, T.K.: Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. IEEE Control Systems 21(6), 11–25 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peerenboom, J.P., Fisher, R.E.: Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies. In: 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), p. 112 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Duenas-Osorio, L., Vemuru, S.M.: Cascading failures in complex infrastructure systems. Struct. Saf. 31(2), 157–167 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Setola, R., De Porcellinis, S., Sforna, M.: Critical infrastructure dependency assessment using the input–output inoperability model. IJCIP 2(4), 170–178 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Theoharidou, M., Kotzanikolaou, P., Gritzalis, D.: A multi-layer criticality assessment methodology based on interdependencies. Comput. Secur. 29(6), 643–658 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Deshmukh, A., Oh, E.H., Hastak, M.: Impact of flood damaged critical infrastructure on communities and industries. Built Environment Project and Asset Management 1(2), 156–175 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rahman, S.: Impact of natural disasters on critical infrastructures. In: The 1st Bangladesh Earthquake Symposium, BES-1 (2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    NYU Law. NYU law students play key role in filing claims against the U.N. on behalf of cholera victims in haiti,
  32. 32.
    Hall, J.: volcanic ash cloud leaves shops facing shortages of fruit, vegetables and medicine, the telegraph (2010),
  33. 33.
    Caro-Bejarano, M.J.: Algunas lecciones aprendidas del desastre de fukushima. Spain IEEE. ES. 9, 1 (2012)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beck, C.: Critical infrastructure resilience: What we can learn from hurricane sandy,
  35. 35.
    Dunn, M., Wigert, I.: International CIIP handbook. ETH (2006)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bologna, S., Di Costanzo, G., Luiijf, E., Setola, R.: An overview of R&D activities in europe on critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP). In: López, J. (ed.) CRITIS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4347, pp. 91–102. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Setola, R., Bologna, S., Casalicchio, E., Masucci, V.: An integrated approach for simulating interdependencies. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, 229–239 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Robinson, C.P., Woodard, J.B., Varnado, S.G.: Critical infrastructure: Interlinked and vulnerable. Issues Sci. Technol. 15(1), 61–67 (1998)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Department of Homeland Security: National infrastructure protection plan: Partnering to enhance protection and resiliency. Washington (2009)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eusgeld, I., Henzi, D., Kröger, W.: Comparative evaluation of modeling and simulation techniques for interdependent critical infrastructures. Scientific Report, Laboratory for Safety Analysis, ETH Zurich (2008)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beyer, U., Flentge, F.: Towards a holistic metamodel for systems of critical infrastructures. European CIIP Newsletter 2(3), 6–8 (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bloomfield, R., Chozos, N., Nobles, P.: Infrastructure interdependency analysis: Introductory research review. Adelard LLP. D/422/12101/4 (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Peerenboom, J.: Infrastructure interdependencies: Overview of concepts and terminology. Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (2001),
  44. 44.
    Casalicchio, E., Galli, E., Tucci, S.: Federated agent-based modeling and simulation approach to study interdependencies in IT critical infrastructures. In: 11th IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications, DS-RT 2007, pp. 182–189 (2007)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sveen, F.O., Torres, J.M., Sarriegi, J.M.: Modeling critical infrastructure interdependencies: Choosing a modeling technique. In: 15th TIEMS Annual Conference: Collection of Abstracts (2008)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leontief, W.W.: Input-output economics. Sci. Am. 185, 15–21 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haimes, Y.Y., Horowitz, B.M., Lambert, J.H., Santos, J.R., Lian, C., Crowther, K.G.: Inoperability input-output model for interdependent infrastructure sectors. I: Theory and methodology. J. Infrastruct Syst. 11(2), 67–79 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Setola, R.: How to measure the degree of interdependencies among critical infrastructures. IJSSE 2(1), 38–59 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oliva, G., Panzieri, S., Setola, R.: Distributed synchronization under uncertainty: A fuzzy approach. Fuzzy Sets Syst (2012)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Forrester, J.: Industrial dynamics. MIT Press, Cambridge (1961)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sterman, J.D.: Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zimmerman, R.: Decision-making and the vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 5, pp. 4059–4063 (2004)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bush, B., Dauelsberg, L., LeClaire, R., Powell, D., Deland, S., Samsa, M.: Critical infrastructure protection decision support system (CIP/DSS) project overview. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society (2005)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zimmerman, R., Restrepo, C.E.: The next step: Quantifying infrastructure interdependencies to improve security. IJCIP 2(2), 215–230 (2006)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    LeClaire, R.J., Hirsch, G.B., Bandlow, A.: Learning environment simulator: A tool for local decision makers and first responders. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society (2009)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schmitz, W.: Analysis and assessment for critical infrastructure protection (ACIP). Ottobrunn, Germany ACIP consortium. Final report IST-2001-37257 Deliverable D7.5 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Laugé
    • 1
  • Josune Hernantes
    • 1
  • Jose Mari Sarriegi
    • 1
  1. 1.Tecnun - University of NavarraSan SebastianSpain

Personalised recommendations