The bibliography is ordered chronologically within four general categories. I have included more or less all my academic work, broadly defined. Thus, the list includes some popular and even polemical articles and books that deal with topics on which I have also done research. I have also included a few writings that deal with other topics if they are cited in my personal retrospective in Chap. 1. I have omitted all other such writings, such as the history of the local school band (where my children once played) and my introduction to a Norwegian volume of Donald Duck comics. To save space, I have replaced my own name with my initials, NPG.

1 Books and Guest-Edited Special Journal Issues and Symposia in English

NPG; Leine, Odvar; Holm, Hans-Henrik; Høivik, Tord; Klausen, Arne Martin; Rudeng, Erik; Wiberg, Håkan (Eds.), 1980: Johan Galtung. A Bibliography of His Scholarly and Popular Writings 195180 (Oslo: PRIO).

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1987: Loran-C and Omega. A Study of the Military Importance of Radio Navigation Aids (Oslo & Oxford: Norwegian University Press & Oxford University Press).

NPG; Njølstad, Olav (Eds.), 1990: Arms Races—Technological and Political Dynamics (London: SAGE).

NPG (guest Ed.), 1992a: “Defence Spending after the Cold War”, in: Cooperation and Conflict. Special Issue 27,4: 323–441.

NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav; Cappelen, Ådne, 1994: The Wages of Peace. Disarmament in a Small Industrialized Economy (London: SAGE).

NPG; Risse-Kappen, Thomas (Eds.), 1995: “Democracy and Peace”, in: European Journal of International Relations. Special Issue 1,4: 405–574.

NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav; Cappelen, Ådne; Smith, Ron P.; Dunne, J. Paul (Eds.), 1996: The Peace Dividend. In: Contributions to Economic Analysis (Amsterdam: North-Holland).

NPG; Brock, Lothar; Homer-Dixon, Thomas; Perelet, Renat; Vlachos, Evan (Eds.), 1997: Conflict and the Environment. NATO ASI Series 2, Environment 33 (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic).

NPG; Lindgren, Göran; Mouhleb, Naima; Smit, Sjoerd; de Soysa, Indra (Eds.), 2000: Making Peace Pay: A Bibliography on Disarmament and Conversion (Claremont, CA: Regina).

Diehl, Paul; NPG (Eds.), 2001: Environmental Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview).

Schneider, Gerald; Barbieri, Katherine; NPG (Eds.), 2003: Globalization and Armed Conflict (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).

Nordås, Ragnhild; NPG (guest Eds.), 2007: “Climate Change and Conflict”, in: Political Geography, 26,6: 627–735.

NPG; Schneider, Gerald; Carey, Sabine (guest Eds.), 2010: “Exploring the Past, Anticipating the Future. Presidential Symposium”, in: International Studies Review, 12,1: 1–104.

NPG; Schneider, Gerald (guest Eds.), 2010: “A Capitalist Peace?”, in: International Interactions, 36,2: 107–213. Revised and expanded version as Schneider, Gerald; NPG (Eds.), 2013: Assessing the Capitalist Peace (London: Routledge).

Schneider, Gerald; NPG; Carey, Sabine (guest Eds.), 2011: “Prediction and Forecasting”, in: Conflict Management and Peace Science, 28,1: 5–85.

Bernauer, Thomas; NPG (guest Eds.), 2012: “Events Data in the Study of Conflict”, in: International Interactions, 38,4: 375–569.

NPG (guest Ed.), 2012a: “Climate Change and Conflict”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 49,1: 1–267.

NPG (guest Ed.), 2012b: “Open Access in International Relations”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 13,3: 211–234.

NPG; Pinker, Steven; Thayer, Bradley A.; Levy, Jack S.; Thompson, William R., 2013: “The Forum: The Decline of War”, in: International Studies Review, 15,3: 396–419.

2 Books in Nordic Languages

NPG (Ed.), 1965a: Kamp uten våpen [Struggle without Arms] (Oslo: Pax). Revised Swedish edition, 1971: Kamp utan vapen (Stockholm: Prisma).

NPG, 1970a: Norge i verdenssamfunnet: En statistisk håndbok [Norway in the World Community: A Statistical Handbook] (Oslo: Pax). Revised edition, 1988.

NPG; Lodgaard, Sverre, 1970: Krigsstaten Norge [Norway—A Warfare State] (Oslo: Pax).

NPG; Østerud, Øyvind; Elster, Jon (Eds.), 1974: De utro tjenere. Embetsverket i EF-kampen [Unfaithful Servants. The Civil Service in the Common Market Struggle] (Oslo: Pax).

NPG; Hellevik, Ottar, 1977: Kampen om EF [The Common Market Struggle] (Oslo: Pax).

NPG; Lodgaard, Sverre; Wilkes, Owen; Botnen, Ingvar, 1978: Norge i atomstrategien [Norway in the Nuclear Strategy] (Oslo: Pax).

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1981: Onkel Sams kaniner. Teknisk etterretning i Norge [Uncle Sam’s Rabbits. Technical Intelligence in Norway] (Oslo: Pax).

Botnen, Ingvar; NPG; Høivik, Tord, 1983: Fakta om krig og fred [Facts about War and Peace] (Oslo: Pax). Also as volume 7 of Pax Leksikon.

NPG; Møller, Bjørn; Wiberg, Håkan; Wæver, Ole, 1990: Svaner på vildveje? Nordens sikkerhed mellem supermagtsflåder og europæisk opbrud [Lost Swans? Nordic Security between Superpower Fleets and a European Departure] (Copenhagen: Vindrose).

NPG; Enckell, Pehr; Burchard, Jørgen (Eds.), 1994: Det vitenskapelige tidsskrift [The Scientific Journal] (Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers).

NPG (Ed.), 1998: Det nye sikkerhetsbildet. Mot en demokratisk og fredelig verden [The New Security Picture. Toward a Democratic and Peaceful World] (Trondheim: Tapir).

3 Articles

NPG, 1964: “Krigens statistikk [The Statistics of War]”, in: Pax, 3,9: 174.

NPG, 1965b: “Ikkevoldsforsvar som strategisk avverge [Nonviolent Defense as a Strategic Deterrent]”, in: Pax, 4,1: 16–19, 32. Reprinted in: Koritzinsky, Theo (Ed.), 1967: Alternativerfem års fredsdebatt (Oslo: Pax): 123–133; and in: Bakke, Tormod; Nilsen, Tom (Eds.), 1987: Ikkevoldteori og praksis (Oslo: Folkereisning mot krig): 136–143.

NPG, 1967: “Trends in World Airline Patterns”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 4,4: 366–408. Slightly revised version with Galtung, Johan, 1980: “International Air Communication: A Study in World Structure”, in: Galtung, Johan (Ed.): Essays in Peace Research, Peace and World Structure (Copenhagen: Ejlers): 152–204.

NPG, 1968a: “Hvem blir studentopprørere – og hvorfor? [Who Become Student Rebels—and Why?]”, in: Pax, 7,6/7: 179–185.

NPG, 1968b: “Pentagon, pressgrupper og politikk [Pentagon, Pressure Groups, and Politics]”, in: Pax, 7(1): 6–11.

NPG, 1968c: “Some Comments on Nonviolent Defense Research”, in: Mohn, Reinhard (Ed.): Civilian Defense (Bielefeld: Bertelsmann Universitätsverlag): 155–164.

NPG, 1969a: “Hawaii og legenden om paradiset [Hawaii and the Myth of Paradise]”, in: Samtiden, 78,8: 472–479.

NPG, 1969b: “The International Airline Network: A Test of the Zipf and Stouffer Hypotheses”, in: Papers, Peace Research Society (International), 11: 123–153.

NPG, 1970b: “Rank and Interaction: A General Theory with Some Applications to the International System”, Proceedings of the IPRA Conference, IPRA Studies in Peace Research (Assen: van Gorcum): 1–21.

Høivik, Tord; NPG, 1970: “Structural Parameters of Graphs: A Theoretical Investigation”, in: Quality and Quantity, 4,1: 193–209. Reprinted in: Blalock, Hubert M. (Ed.), 1975: Quantitative Sociology (New York: Academic Press): 203–224.

NPG, 1971: “Interaction Patterns in the Middle East”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 6,1: 15–30. Finnish Translation: Lähi-Idän vuorovaikutusknviot. In: Vesa, Unto (Ed.), 1971: Sodat, kriisit ja rauhantuutkimus (Tampere: TAPRI): 77–104.

NPG; Hartmann, Åke; Naustdalslid, Jon, 1971: “Mardøla-aksjonen [The Mardøla Demonstration]”, in: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, 12,3: 177–210.

NPG; Høivik, Tord, 1971: “Simulating Structural Parameters of Graphs: First Results”, in: Quality and Quantity, 5,1: 224–227.

NPG, 1972: “Generaler og fotfolk i utakt [Generals and Rank and File Out of Step]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 26,4B Supplement: 795–804.

NPG; Hellevik, Ottar, 1973: “The Common Market Decision in Norway: A Clash between Direct and Indirect Democracy”, in: Scandinavian Political Studies, 8: 227–235.

NPG, 1974a: “Salary Equalization in a Research Institute”, in: Scandinavian Forest Economics, 3–4: 29–31.

NPG, 1974b: “Time Differences and International Interaction”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 9,2: 35–51. Reprinted as Chap. 3 of this volume.

NPG; Høivik, Tord; Hellevik, Ottar, 1974: “Noen enkle modeller for valg og folkeavstemninger [Some Simple Models for Elections and Referenda]”, in: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, 15,3: 233–268.

Galtung, Johan; NPG, 1975: “Norge i verdenssamfunnet [Norway in the World Community]”, in: Ramsøy, Natalie R.; Vaa, Mariken (Eds.): Det Norske Samfunn, 2nd edn, vol II (Oslo: Gyldendal): 742–811.

NPG, 1975: “Slow is Beautiful. The Stratification of Personal Mobility with Special Reference to International Aviation”, in: Acta Sociologica, 18,1: 76–94.

NPG; Singer, J. David, 1975: “Distance and International War, 1816–1965”, Proceedings of the IPRA Conference, IPRA Studies in Peace Research (Oslo: International Peace Research Association): 481–506.

Hellevik, Ottar; NPG; Ringdal, Kristen, 1975: “The Common Market Issue in Norway: A Conflict Between Center and Periphery”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 12,1: 37–53.

NPG, 1976: “Hvordan og hvorfor Norge fikk Loran C [How and Why Norway got Loran-C]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 34,4: 823–841.

NPG, 1977: “Towards a Multilateral Aviation Treaty”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 14,3: 239–259.

NPG; Lodgaard, Sverre, 1977: “Norway—The Not so Reluctant Ally”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 12,4: 209–219. Originally published in Finnish in Ulkopolitiikka.

NPG; Høivik, Tord, 1978: “Best Interaction Models”, in: Quality and Quantity, 12,4: 299–329. Reprinted in: Alker, Hayward (Ed.), 1979: Mathematical Approaches to International Organizations (Bucharest: Romanian Academy of Social and Political Sciences): 65–91.

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1978: “Optical Satellite Tracking: University Participation in Preparations for Space Warfare”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 15,3: 205–225.

NPG, 1979: “Loran C og Polaris: Hvem visste hva og når fikk de vite det? [Loran-C and Polaris: Who Knew What and When Were They Informed?]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 37,3: 405–420.

NPG, 1980: “A Salary System for Peace Research Institutes? Some PRIO Experiences”, in: International Peace Research Newsletter, 18,2: 12–23.

NPG, 1980: “The Structure of Galtungism”, in: Gleditsch, Nils Petter et al. (Eds.): Johan Galtung. A Bibliography of His Scholarly and Popular Writings 19511980 (Oslo: PRIO): 64–81.

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1981: “Research on Intelligence or Intelligence as Research”, in: Jahn, Egbert; Sakamoto, Yoshikazu (Eds.): Elements of World Instability: Armaments, Communication, Food, International Division of Labour. Proceedings of the IPRA Eight General Conference (Frankfurt am Main: Campus): 283–300. Abbreviated version in: Holm, Hans-Henrik; Rudeng, Erik (Eds.), 1980: Social Science for What? Festschrift for Johan Galtung (Oslo: Norwegian University Press): 170–181.

NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav; Cappelen, Ådne, 1983: “Conversion: Global, National, and Local Effects. A Case Study of Norway”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 18,3: 179–195. German version in: Wulf, Herbert (Ed.), 1983: Abrüstung und Unterentwicklung. Berichte von Experten der Vereinten Nationen (Reinbek: Rowohlt): 255–278. Slightly revised version as Conversion Effects: A Case Study of Norway. In: Dumas, Lloyd; Thee, Marek (Eds.), 1989: Making Peace Possible: The Promise of Economic Conversion (London: Pergamon): 231–249.

NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav; Cappelen, Ådne; Moum, Knut, 1983: “The Economic Effects of Conversion: A Case Study of Norway”, in: Tuomi, Helena; Väyrynen, Raimo (Eds.): Militarization and Arms Production (London & New York: Croom Helm & St. Martin’s): 225–258.

Cappelen, Ådne; NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav, 1984: “Military Spending and Economic Growth in the OECD Countries”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 21,4: 361–373. Reprinted in: Hartley, Keith; Sandler, Todd (Eds.), 2002: The Economics of Defence. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics (Cheltenham: Elgar): 460–472.

NPG; Høgetveit, Einar, 1984: “Freedom of Information and National Security. A Comparative Study of Norway and United States”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 21,1: 17–45.

NPG, 1985: “Arne Treholt – et politisk offer? [Arne Treholt—A Political Victim?]”, in: Ny Tid, 27 June: 7.

NPG, 1986a: “Fredsforskning og politikk [Peace Research and Politics]”, in: Politica, 18,3: 252–262.

NPG, 1986b: “The Strategic Significance of the Nordic Countries”, in: Current Research on Peace and Violence, 9,1–2: 28–42. Abbreviated version as (1985) “Europe’s Northern Region between the Superpowers”, in: Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 16,4: 399–411. Revised version in Danish in: NPG; Møller, Bjørn; Wiberg, Håkan; Wæver, Ole, 1990: Svaner på vildveje. Nordens sikkerhed mellem supermagtsflåder og europæisk opbrud (Copenhagen: Vindrose): 28–56.

Sørdahl, Roger; NPG, 1986: “Kilder til sikkerhetspolitisk etterkrigshistorie [Sources to the History of Post-war Security Policy]”, in: Historisk tidsskrift, 65,3: 273–317.

Skomsvold, Rolf; NPG; Cappelen, Ådne; Bjerkholt, Olav, 1987: “Regionaløkonomiske konsekvenser av nedrustning i Norge [Regional Economic Consequences of Disarmament in Norway]”, in: Sosiologi idag, 17,3–4: 113–130.

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1987: “NAROL—An Early Attack Assessment System”, in: Intelligence and National Security, 2,2: 331–335.

NPG, 1988a: “Etableringen av et internasjonalt tidsskrift: Journal of Peace Research [The Establishment of an International Journal: Journal of Peace Research]”, in: Lundberg, Elizabeth (Ed.): Internationell vetenskaplig publicering i Norden (Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers): 69–94.

NPG, 1988b: “Hemmelighold: Den britiske modellen [Secrecy: The British Model]”, in: Norsk statsvitenskapelig tidsskrift, 4,2: 173–193.

NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav; Cappelen, Ådne, 1988: “Military R&D and Economic Growth in Industrialized Market Economies”, in: Wallensteen, Peter (Ed.): Peace Research: Achievements and Challenges (Boulder, CO & London: Westview): 198–215.

NPG, 1989a: “Focus on: Journal of Peace Research”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 26,1: 1–5.

NPG, 1989b: “Massemediene og sikkerhetspolitikken [The Mass Media and Security Policy]”, in: Thomsen, Nils (Ed.): Pressens Årbog (Copenhagen & Fredrikstad: Reitzel & Institutt for Journalistikk, for Pressehistorisk Selskab): 37–46.

NPG, 1989c: “Oppbyggingen av et konsulentsystem for et samfunnsvitenskapelig tidsskrift [Building a Referee System for a Social Science Journal]”, in: NOP-nytt, 15,4: 27–49.

NPG, 1990a: “The Development of Peace Research: An Editor’s Perspective”, in: Nobel, Jaap W. (Ed.): The Coming of Age of Peace Research (Groningen: Styx): 79–87.

NPG, 1990b: “Research on Arms Races”, in: NPG; Njølstad, Olav (Eds.): Arms RacesTechnological and Political Dynamics (London: SAGE): 1–14.

NPG, 1990c: “The Rise and Decline of the New Peace Movement”, in: Kodama, Katsuya et al. (Eds.): Towards a Comparative Analysis of Peace Movements (Aldershot & Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth & Gower): 73–88.

NPG; Wolland, Steingrim, 1991: “Norway”, in: D’Souza, Frances et al. (Eds.): Information Freedom and Censorship. World Report 1991 (London: Library Association): 287–291.

Cappelen, Ådne; NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav, 1992: “Guns, Butter, and Growth: The Case of Norway”, in: Chan, Steve; Mintz, Alex (Eds.): Defense, Welfare, and Growth (London & New York: Routledge): 61–80.

NPG, 1992b: “Defense without Threat? The Future of Norwegian Military Spending”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 27,4: 397–413.

NPG, 1992c: “Democracy and Peace”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 29,4: 369–376. Reprinted as Chap. 4 of this volume. Revised version (1993) as “Democracy and Peace: Good News for Human Rights Advocates”, in: Gomien, Donna (Ed.): Broadening the Frontiers of Human Rights: Essays in Honour of Asbjørn Eide (Oslo & Oxford: Scandinavian University Press & Oxford University Press): 283–306.

NPG; Wiberg, Håkan; Smith, Dan, 1992: “The Nordic Countries: Peace Dividend or Security Dilemma”, in: Cooperation and Conflict, 27,4: 323–347.

NPG, 1993: “The Most-Cited Articles in JPR”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 30,4: 445–449.

NPG; Agøy, Nils Ivar, 1993: “Norway: Toward Full Freedom of Choice”, in: Moskos, Charles C.; Chambers, John Whiteclay (Eds.): The New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance (New York: Oxford University Press): 114–126.

NPG, 1994a: “Conversion and the Environment”, in: Käkönen, Jyrki (Ed.): Green Security or Militarized Environment (Aldershot & Brookfield, VT: Dartmouth): 131–154.

NPG, 1994b: “Treholt-litteraturen: En studie i polarisering [The Treholt Literature: A Study in Polarization]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 52,2: 275–287.

NPG, 1995a: “35 Major Wars? A Brief Comment on Mueller”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 39,3: 584–587.

NPG, 1995b: “Democracy and the Future of European Peace”, in: European Journal of International Relations, 1,4: 539–571. Shorter version as (1995) “Demokratie, Krieg und die Zukunft Europas”, in: Welt Trends, 10: 109–127.

NPG, 1995c: “Freedom of Information and National Security: A Comparative Perspective”, in: Nagel, Stuart S. (Ed.): Research in Law and Policy Studies, vol. 4 (Greenwich, CT & London: JAI Press): 25–43.

NPG, 1995d: “Geography, Democracy, and Peace”, in: International Interactions, 20,4: 297–323.

NPG, 1995e: “The Treholt Case—A Review of the Literature”, in: Intelligence and National Security, 10,3: 529–538. Reprinted as Chap. 5 of this volume.

Cappelen, Ådne; NPG; Bjerkholt, Olav, 1996: “The Peace Dividend in Norway: Domestic or International?”, in: NPG et al. (Eds.) The Peace Dividend. Contributions to Economic Analysis. 235 (Amsterdam: North-Holland): 275–303.

NPG, 1996a: “The APSR Hall of Fame: A Comment”, in: PS: Political Science and Politics, 29,4: 637–638.

NPG, 1996b: “Democracy and Democratization: Not Quite the State of the Art”, in: Security Dialogue, 27,3: 349–354.

NPG, 1996c: “Det nye sikkerhetsbildet: Mot en demokratisk og fredelig verden? [The New Security Picture: Towards a Democratic and Peaceful World?]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 54,3: 291–310. In revised form as Chap. 1 in: NPG et al. (Eds.), 1998: Det nye sikkerhetsbildet (Trondheim: Tapir): 9–28.

Ellingsen, Tanja; NPG, 1997: “Democracy and Armed Conflict in the Third World”, in: Smith, Dan; Volden, Ketil (Eds.): Causes of Conflict in the Third World (Oslo: North-South Coalition & PRIO): 69–81.

NPG, 1997: “Environmental Conflict and the Democratic Peace”, in: NPG et al. (Eds.): Conflict and the Environment (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic): 91–106.

NPG; Hegre, Håvard, 1997: “Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41,2: 283–310.

NPG, 1998a: “Armed Conflict and the Environment. A Critique of the Literature”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 35,3: 381–400. Reprinted in: Diehl, Paul F. (Ed.), 2005: War, vol. III (London: Sage): 252–274; in: Mitchell, Ronald B. (Ed.), 2008: International Environmental Politics, vol. IV (London: Sage): 237–258; in: Matthew, Richard A. (Ed.), 2014: Environmental Security, vol. II: Environmental Change, National Security and the Conflict Cycle (London: Sage): 175–198; in: Stern, David I.; Jotzo, Frank; Dobes, Leo (Eds.), 2014: Climate Change and the World Economy. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics (Cheltenham: Elgar): 641–660, and as Chap. 6 of this volume. Revised and shortened version in: Diehl, Paul F.; NPG (Eds.), 2001: Environmental Conflict (Boulder, CO: Westview): 251–272.

NPG, 1998b: “Fred og demokrati [Peace and Democracy]”, in: Midgaard, Knut; Rasch, Bjørn Erik (Eds.) Demokrativilkår og virkninger (Oslo & Bergen: Fagbokforlaget): 299–316. Revised version by NPG; Håvard Hegre in the second edition (2004), 293–322.

McLaughlin, Sara; Gates, Scott; Hegre, Håvard; Gissinger, Ranveig; NPG, 1998: “Timing the Changes in Political Structures: A New Polity Database”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 42,2: 231–242.

Gissinger, Ranveig; NPG, 1999: “Globalization and Conflict: Welfare, Distribution, and Political Unrest”, in: Journal of World-Systems Research, 5,2: 327–365.

NPG, 1999a: “Do Open Windows Encourage Conflict?”, in: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, 102,3: 333–349.

NPG, 1999b: “Freedom of Expression, Freedom of Information, and National Security: The Case of Norway”, in: Coliver, Sandra et al. (Eds.): Secrecy and Liberty: National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (Haag: Nijhoff): 361–388.

NPG, 1999c: “Peace and Democracy”, in: Kurtz, Lester (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, vol. 2 (San Diego, CA: Academic Press): 643–652. Revised version in second edition (2008), 1430–1437.

Toset, Hans Petter Wollebæk; NPG; Hegre, Håvard, 2000: “Shared Rivers and Interstate Conflict”, in: Political Geography, 19,8: 971–996. Revised version as: NPG; Hegre, Håvard; Toset, Hans Petter Wollebæk, 2007: “Conflicts in Shared River Basins”, in: Grover, Velma (Ed.): Water: A Source of Conflict or Cooperation? (Enfield, NH: Science Publishers): 39–66.

Gates, Scott; Hegre, Håvard; NPG, 2001: “Democracy and Civil Conflict After the Cold War”, in: Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Vetik, Raivo (Eds.): Perspectives on Democratic Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe (New York: Columbia University Press, for East European Monographs): 185–194.

NPG, 2001a: “Environmental Change, Security, and Conflict”, in: Crocker, Chester; Hampson, Fen Osler; Aall, Pamela (Eds.): Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press): 53–68. Revised version in: Crocker, Chester; Hampson, Fen Osler; Aall, Pamela (Eds.), 2007: Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press): 177–195. French version: Changements environnementaux, sécurité et conflits. In: Hallegatte, Stéphane; Ambrosi, Philippe (Eds.), 2007: “Environnement, changement climatique et sécurité. Questions scientifiques et enjeux opérationnels”, Special issue of Les Cahiers de la Sécurité, 63,4: 121–156. Spanish version: Cambio medioambiental, seguridad y conflicto. In: Sanahuja, José Antonio (Ed.), 2012: Construcción de la paz, seguridad y desarrollo. Visiones, políticas y actores (Madrid: Editorial Complutense): 99–125. Revised version: Climate Change, Environmental Stress, and Conflict. In: Crocker, Chester; Hampson, Fen Osler; Aall, Pamela (Eds.), 2015: Conflict Management and Global Governance in an Age of Awakening (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press): 147–168.

NPG, 2001b: “Mot et utvidet sikkerhetsbegrep? [Toward an Extended Concept of Security?]”, in: Hovi, Jon; Malnes, Raino (Eds.): Normer og makt: Innføring i internasjonal politikk (Oslo: Abstrakt): 95–114.

NPG, 2001c: “Resource and Environmental Conflict: The State-of-the-Art”, in: Petzold-Bradley, Eileen; Carius, Alexander; Vincze, Arpád (Eds.): Responding to Environmental Conflicts: Implications for Theory and Practice. Nato Science Series 2. Environmental Security, 78 (Dordrecht: Kluwer): 53–66.

Hegre, Håvard; Ellingsen, Tanja; Gates, Scott; NPG, 2001: “Toward a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change, and Civil War, 1816–1992”, in: American Political Science Review, 95,1: 17–33. Reprinted in: Diehl, Paul F. (Ed.), 2005: War. Library of International Relations, vol. V (London: Sage): 165–193.

NPG, 2002a: “Borgerkrig – vår tids landeplage? [Civil War—The Scourge of Our Time?]”, in: Økonomisk Forum, 56,1: 4–7.

NPG, 2002b: “Double-Blind but More Transparent”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 39,3: 259–262. Reprinted as Chap. 7 of this volume.

NPG, 2002c: “Fra krig om olje til krig om vann? [From Oil Wars to Water Wars?]”, in: P2-akademiet, Book Y (Oslo: NRK Fakta): 34–45.

NPG; Sverdrup, Bjørn Otto, 2002: “Democracy and the Environment”, in: Page, Edward A.; Redclift, Michael (Eds.): Human Security and the Environment: International Comparisons (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar): 45–70.

NPG; Urdal, Henrik, 2002: “Ecoviolence? Links Between Population Growth, Environmental Scarcity, and Violent Conflict in Thomas Homer-Dixon’s Work”, in: Journal of International Affairs, 56,1: 283–302.

NPG; Wallensteen, Peter; Eriksson, Mikael; Sollenberg, Margareta; Strand, Håvard, 2002: “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 39,5: 615–637.

Furlong, Kathryn; NPG, 2003: “The Boundary Dataset”, in: Conflict Management and Peace Science, 20,1: 93–117.

NPG, 2003a: “Arvelig belastet [The Burden of Heritage]”, in: Eek, Øystein (Ed.): Gode Gamle Katta (Oslo: Oslo katedralskole): 178–179.

NPG, 2003b: “Environmental Conflict: Neomalthusians vs. Cornucopians”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter et al. (Eds.): Security and the Environment in the Mediterranean: Conceptualising Security and Environmental Conflicts (Berlin: Springer): 477–485.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, 2003c: “Mappa mi (My file)”, in: Dagbladet, 20 December, Expanded version as ‘Mappene våre’ [Our files]. In: Ofstad, Bjørg; Bjerkholt, Olav; Skrede, Kari; Hylland, Aanund (Eds.), 2009: Rettferd og politikk. Festskrift til Hilde Bojer (Oslo: Emilia): 351–356.

NPG; Metelits, Claire, 2003: “The Replication Debate”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 4,1: 72–79.

NPG; Metelits, Claire; Strand, Håvard, 2003: “Posting Your Data: Will You Be Scooped or Will You Be Famous?”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 4,1: 89–97.

Hegre, Håvard; Gissinger, Ranveig; NPG, 2003: “Globalization and Internal Conflict”, in: Schneider, Gerald; Barbieri, Katherine; NPG (Eds.): Globalization and Armed Conflict (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield): 251–276.

Ravlo, Hilde; NPG; Dorussen, Han, 2003: “Colonial War and the Democratic Peace”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 47,4: 520–548.

Schneider, Gerald; Barbieri, Katherine; NPG, 2003: “Does Globalization Contribute to Peace? A Critical Survey of the Literature”, in: Schneider, Gerald; Barbieri, Katherine; NPG (Eds.): Globalization and Armed Conflict (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield): 3–30.

NPG, 2004: “Peace Research and International Relations in Scandinavia: From Enduring Rivalry to Stable Peace?”, in: Guzzini, Stefano; Jung, Dietrich (Eds.): Copenhagen Peace Research: Conceptual Innovation and Contemporary Security Analysis. Essays in Honour of Håkan Wiberg (London: Routledge): 15–26.

NPG; Hegre, Håvard, 2004: “En globalisert verden – økt kaos eller varig fred? [A Globalized World—Increased Chaos or Lasting Peace?]”, in: Snoen, Jan Arild (Ed.): Åpen verden. Et forsvar for globaliseringen (Oslo: Civita): 250–263.

Gilmore, Elisabeth; NPG; Lujala, Päivi; Rød, Jan Ketil, 2005: “Conflict Diamonds: A New Dataset”, in: Conflict Management and Peace Science, 22,3: 257–292.

Lacina, Bethany; NPG, 2005: “Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths”, in: European Journal of Population, 21,2–3: 145–166. Reprinted as Chap. 6 in: Brunborg, Helge; Tabeau, Ewa; Urdal, Henrik (Eds.). 2006: The Demography of Armed Conflict (Dordrecht: Springer): 131–151.

Lujala, Päivi; NPG; Gilmore, Elisabeth, 2005: “A Diamond Curse? Civil War and a Lootable Resource”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49,4: 538–562.

Sørli, Mirjam E.; NPG; Strand, Håvard, 2005: “Why Is There So Much Conflict in the Middle East?”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49,1: 141–165.

Buhaug, Halvard; NPG, 2006: “The Death of Distance? The Globalization of Armed Conflict”, in: Kahler, Miles; Walter, Barbara (Eds.): Territoriality and Conflict in an Era of Globalization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 187–216.

Furlong, Kathryn; NPG; Hegre, Håvard, 2006: “Geographic Opportunity and Neomalthusian Willingness: Boundaries, Shared Rivers, and Conflict”, in: International Interactions, 32,1: 79–108.

NPG; Furlong, Kathryn; Hegre, Håvard; Lacina, Bethany; Owen, Taylor, 2006: “Conflicts over Shared Rivers: Resource Scarcity or Fuzzy Boundaries?”, in: Political Geography, 25,4: 361–382.

Lacina, Bethany; NPG; Russett, Bruce, 2006: “The Declining Risk of Death in Battle”, in: International Studies Quarterly, 50,3: 673–680.

Binningsbø, Helga Malmin; de Soysa, Indra; NPG, 2007: “Green Giant or Straw Man? Environmental Pressure and Civil Conflict, 1961–99”, in: Population and Environment, 28,6: 337–353.

NPG, 2007a: “Incentives to Publish?”, in: European Political Science, 6,2: 185–191.

NPG, 2007b: “Tellekantenes fundament [The Basis for Counting Publications]”, in: Morgenbladet, 30 March: 26.

NPG, 2007c: “Årsaker til krig [Causes of War]”, in: Hovi, Jon; Malnes, Raino (Eds.): Anarki, makt og normer. Innføring i internasjonal politikk. Second edition (Oslo: Abstrakt): 166–184. Audio version, Norsk lyd- og blindeskriftbibliotek (2007). Revised version with Halvard Buhaug (2011), 167–190.

Nordås, Ragnhild; NPG, 2007: “Climate Change and Conflict”, in: Political Geography, 26,6: 627–638.

Buhaug, Halvard; NPG; Theisen, Ole Magnus, 2008: Implications of Climate Change for Armed Conflict. Paper prepared for the Social Dimensions of Climate Change program (Washington, DC: World Bank, Social Development Department). Shorter version as Implications of climate change for armed conflict. Chapter 3 in: Mearns, Robin; Norton, Andy (Eds.), 2010: Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World. New Frontiers of Social Policy (Washington, DC: World Bank): 75–101 and as Climate change and armed conflict. Chapter 9 in: Brown, Graham; Langer, Arnim (Eds.), 2012: Elgar Companion to Civil War and Fragile States (London: Edward Elgar): 125–138.

NPG, 2008a: “The Liberal Moment Fifteen Years On. Presidential address, International Studies Association”, in: International Studies Quarterly, 52,4: 691–712. Reprinted as Chap. 8 of this volume.

NPG, 2008b: “Klimaendringer og sikkerhet [Climate Change and Security]”, in: FN-magasinet, 2,1: 9–11.

NPG; Urdal, Henrik, 2008: “Om topptidsskrifter i internasjonal politikk [On Top Journals in International Relations]”, in: Internasjonal Politikk, 66,4: 699–701.

Rustad, Siri Camilla Aas; Rød, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Wenche; NPG, 2008: “Foliage and Fighting: Forest Resources and the Onset, Duration, and Location of Civil War”, in: Political Geography, 27,7: 761–782.

Urdal, Henrik; Theisen, Ole Magnus; NPG; Buhaug, Halvard, 2010: “Klimakriger? En vurdering av det faglige grunnlaget [Climate Wars? An Evaluation of the Academic Basis]”, in: Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift, 26,4: 297–320.

NPG; Hegre, Håvard; Strand, Håvard, 2009: “Democracy and Civil War”, in: Midlarsky, Manus (Ed.): Handbook of War Studies III (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press): 155–192 + refs. 301ff.

NPG; Nordås, Ragnhild, 2009: “Climate Change and Conflict: A Critical Overview”, in: Die Friedens-Warte, 84,2: 11–28. Revised version in: Hartard, Susanne; Liebert, Wolfgang (Eds.), 2015: Competition and Conflicts on Resource Use (Heidelberg: Springer): 21–38.

NPG, 2010: “Introductory Essay”, in: Young, Nigel J. (Ed.): The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press): xxxiii–xxxvi.

NPG; Theisen, Ole Magnus, 2010: “Resources, the Environment, and Conflict”, in: Cavelty, Myriam Dunn; Mauer, Victor (Eds.): Routledge Handbook of Security Studies (London: Routledge): 221–231. Revised version, second edition (2015), in press.

Schneider, Gerald; NPG, 2010: “A Capitalist Peace?”, in: International Interactions, 36,2: 107–114. Revised version as “The Capitalist Peace: The Origins and Prospects of a Liberal Idea”, in: Schneider, Gerald; NPG (Eds.), 2013: Assessing the Capitalist Peace (London: Routledge): 1–9.

Schneider, Gerald; NPG; Carey, Sabine C., 2010: “Exploring the Past, Anticipating the Future: A Symposium”, in: International Studies Review, 12,1: 1–7.

Schneider, Gerald; Carey, Sabine C.; NPG, 2011: “Forecasting in International Relations: One Quest, Three Approaches”, in: Conflict Management and Peace Science, 28,1: 5–14.

NPG; Listhaug, Ola, 2011: “Foreword”, in: Jakobsen, Tor G. (Ed.): War. An Introduction to Theories and Research on Collective Violence (Hauppauge, NY: Nova): vii.

Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Buhaug, Halvard; NPG; Weibust, Eivind Berg; Wischnath, Gerdis, 2012: “Intrastate Water-Related Conflict and Cooperation: A New Event-Dataset (WARRIC)”, in: International Interactions, 38,4: 529–545.

Bernauer, Thomas; NPG, 2012: “Introduction to the Special Issue on Events Data in Conflict”, in: International Interactions, 38,4: 375–381.

Brochmann, Marit; NPG, 2012: “Shared Rivers and Conflict—A Reconsideration”, in: Political Geography, 31,8: 519–527.

Brochmann, Marit; Rød, Jan Ketil; NPG, 2012: “International Borders and Conflict Revisited”, in: Conflict Management and Peace Science, 29,2: 170–194.

Cappelen, Ådne; NPG, 2012: “En fredsgevinst for Norge – eller fortsatt opprustning? [A Peace Dividend for Norway—Or Continued Rearmament?]”, in: Samfunnsøkonomen, 26,6: 26–31.

NPG, 2012c: “Aldri for sent å være pessimist? [Never Too Late To Be a Pessimist?]”, in: Larsen, Sverre Røed; Hjort-Larsen, Anne (Eds.): I strid for fred. Fredskontoret 19621972 (Oslo: Kolofon): 179–185.

NPG, 2012d: “Blir det mer krig i verden? [More War in the World?]”, in: Krøvel, Roy; Orgeret, Kristin Skare (Eds.): Historier om verden. Utvikling og miljø i globalt perspektiv (Kristiansand: IJ-forlaget): 60–61.

NPG, 2012e: “Whither the Weather? Climate Change and Conflict”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 49,1: 4–9. Reprinted as Chap. 9 of this volume.

NPG, 2012f: “Open Access in International Relations: A Symposium”, in: International Studies Perspective, 13,3: 211–215.

NPG; Urdal, Henrik, 2012: “Står barometeret på storm? Ny forskning gir lite støtte til tanken om klimakonflikter [A Storm Warning on the Barometer? New Research Provides Little Support for the Idea of Climate Conflicts]”, in: Klima, 13,1: 30–31. Norwegian version and English translation at

NPG, 2013a: “Arthur Westing: A Personal Memoir”. Preface to Brauch, Hans Günter (Ed.): Arthur H WestingFrom Environmental to Comprehensive Security. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice, 1 (Heidelberg: Springer): xi–xiii.

NPG, 2013b: “The Decline of War—The Main Issues”, in: NPG (Ed.): “The Forum: The Decline of War”, in: International Studies Review, 15,3: 397–399. Reprinted as Chap. 10 of this volume.

Lacina, Bethany Ann; NPG, 2013: “The Waning of War is Real: A Reply to Gohdes and Price”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 57,6: 1109–1127.

Nordås, Ragnhild; NPG, 2013: “The IPCC, Human Security, and the Climate-Conflict Nexus”, in: Redclift, Michael; Grasso, Marco (Eds.): Handbook on Climate Change and Human Security (London: Elgar): 67–88.

Østby, Gudrun; Strand, Håvard; NPG; Nordås, Ragnhild, 2013: Gender Gap or Gender Bias in Peace Research? Publication Patterns for Journal of Peace Research, 1983–2008”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 14,4: 493–506.

Theisen, Ole Magnus; NPG; Buhaug, Halvard, 2013: “Is Climate Change a Driver of Armed Conflict?”, in: Climatic Change, 117,3: 613–625.

Buhaug, Halvard; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Brzoska, Michael; Busby, Josh W.; Ciccone, Antonio; Fjelde, Hanne; Gartzke, Erik; NPG; Goldstone, Jack A.; Hegre, Håvard; Holtermann, Helge; Koubi, Vally; Link, Jasmin S.A.; Link, Peter Michael; Lujala, Päivi; O’Loughlin, John; Raleigh, Clionadh; Scheffran, Jürgen; Schilling, Janpeter; Smith, Todd G.; Theisen, Ole Magnus; Tol, Richard S.J.; Urdal, Henrik; von Uexkull, Nina, 2014: “One Effect to Rule Them All? A Comment on Climate and Conflict”, in: Climatic Change, 127,3–4: 391–397.

Bussmann, Margit; Dorussen, Han; NPG, 2014: “Against All Odds: 2013 Richardson Award to Mats Hammarström and Peter Wallensteen”, in: Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 20,2: 235–243.

NPG, 2014a: “Klimaendringer og krig. FNs klimapanels rapport spår ikke flere kriger, mener fredsforsker [Climate Change and War. The IPCC Does Not Predict More War, Peace Researcher Argues]”, in: Aftenposten, 11 April. English translation at Reprinted as Chap. 11 of this volume.

NPG, 2014b: “Overvåking under kontroll [Surveillance under Control]”, in: Berg Lene (Ed.): Gompen og andre beretninger om overvåking i Norge 194889 (Oslo: URO/KORO): 7–16. Slightly revised and updated version in Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift, 31,5: 441–451. English translation at

NPG, 2014c: “Will Climate Change Reverse the Trend Towards Peace?”, in: Schneckener, Ulrich; von Scheliha, Arnulf; Lienkamp, Andreas; Klagge, Britta (Eds.) Wettstreit um Ressourcen. Konflikte um Klima, Wasser und Boden (Berlin: Oekom): 49–60.

NPG; Nordås, Ragnhild, 2014: “Conflicting Messages? The IPCC on Conflict and Human Security”, in: Political Geography, 43(November): 82–90.

NPG; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Strand, Håvard, 2014: “Peace Research—Just the Study of War?”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 51,2: 145–158.

Urdal, Henrik; Østby, Gudrun; NPG, 2014: “Journal of Peace Research”, in: Peace Review, 26,4: 500–504.

Böhmelt, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Buhaug, Halvard; NPG; Tribaldos, Theresa; Wischnath, Gerdis, 2014: “Demand, Supply, and Restraint: Determinants of Domestic Water Conflict and Cooperation”, in: Global Environmental Change, 29(November): 337–348.

NPG; Melander, Erik; Urdal, Henrik, 2015: “Introduction: Patterns of Armed Conflict Since 1945”, in: Mason, David; Mitchell, Sara McLaughlin (Eds.): What Do We Know About Civil War? (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, in press).

4 Selected Papers and Reports

NPG, 1968d: The Structure of the International Airline Network. Thesis for the degree, University of Oslo.

Wilkes, Owen; NPG, 1979: Intelligence Stations in Norway: Their Number, Location, Function, and Legality (Oslo: PRIO).

NPG (Ed.), 1981a: Dommen over Gleditsch & Wilkes. Fire kritiske innlegg [The Sentence on Gleditsch and Wilkes. Four Critical Comments] (Oslo: PRIO).

NPG (Ed.), 1981b: Forskning eller spionasje? Rapport om straffesaken i Oslo Byrett i mai 1981 [Research or Espionage? Report on the Criminal Trial at the Oslo City Court in May 1981] (Oslo: PRIO).

NPG (Ed.), 1981c: The Oslo Rabbit Trial. A Record of the ‘National Security Trial’ against Owen Wilkes and NPG in the Oslo Town Court, May 1981 (Oslo: Solidarity Campaign for Gleditsch and Wilkes).

NPG, 1982: Annen runde. Høyesteretts behandling av straffesaken mot Gleditsch og Wilkes (Oslo: PRIO). [English version: Round Two. The Norwegian Supreme Court vs Gleditsch & Wilkes, February 1982 (Oslo: PRIO).]

NPG, 2002d: The Future of Armed Conflict (Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies).

NPG; Christiansen, Lene S.; Hegre, Håvard, 2007: Democratic Jihad? Military Intervention and Democracy. Post-conflict Transitions Working Paper 15, WSPS 4242 (Washington, DC: Development Research Group, World Bank).

NPG; Nordås, Ragnhild; Salehyan, Idean, 2007: Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict. Coping with Crisis Working Paper Series (New York: International Peace Academy).

Rolseth, Amund; Theisen, Ole Magnus; NPG, 2014: “Violence Against Civilians 1900–87: Regime Type, Climate Change, and the Severity of Democide”, Paper Presented at the Biannual Conference of the International Network of Genocide Scholars, Cape Town, 4–7 December.

Strand, Håvard; Nordkvelle, Jonas; Gleditsch, Nils Petter, 2014: “Posting Your Data: Will You Remain Famous?”, Paper Presented at the 55th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Toronto, 26–29 March.