Advertisement

Theories, Constructs, and Applications in Working with LGBT Elders in Human Services

Chapter
  • 71k Downloads

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of select theories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Traditional theories of life span development offer a general framework within which to understand issues and experiences common to persons in later stages of life. The intent of this chapter is to discuss theoretical constructs and models of sexual identity, counseling, public health, gerontology, and social work that can be applied with aging LGBT populations. These theories underscore the necessity of helping present and future professionals who understand differences among LGBT elders and the complex nature of identity, their psychosocial adjustment, and ways in which stigma of sexual identity and gender identity affects their well-being. Although the various theories and models in this chapter are presented according to discipline, theories are not mutually exclusive to disciplines.

Keywords

LGBT theories Sexual orientation identity development Gender identity development Life span development theories 

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (2002). Residual effects of past on later behavior: Habituation and reasoned action perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(2), 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, E. V. (2005). Teaching generalist practice in a rural context. In L. H. Ginsberg (Ed.), Social work in rural communities (pp. 445–463). Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.Google Scholar
  4. Almvig, M. (1982). The invisible minority: Aging and lesbianism. Utica, NY: Institute of Gerontology.Google Scholar
  5. Altman, D. (1971). Homosexual: Oppression and liberation. New York: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  6. American Counseling Association. (2010). Competencies for counseling with transgender clients. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 4, 135–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for practice with LGBT clients. Available from http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/guidelines.aspx.
  8. Association for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counseling. (2009). Competencies for counseling with transgender clients. Alexandria, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Ballenger-Browning, K., & Johnson, D. C. (2010). Key facts of resilience. San Diego, CA: Navel Center for Combat & Operational Stress Control.Google Scholar
  10. Balsam, K., & D’Augelli, A. (2006). The victimization of older LGBT adults: Patterns, impact, and implications for intervention. In D. Kimmel, T. Rose, & S. Davis (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging: Research and clinical perspectives (pp. 110–130). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191. Google Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of though and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Google Scholar
  14. Berger, R. M. (1982). The unseen minority: Older gays and lesbians. Social Work, 27(3), 236–242. Google Scholar
  15. von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General systems theory: Foundation, development, and application. New York: Braziller.Google Scholar
  16. Bilodeau, B. L. (2005). Beyond the gender binary: A case study of transgender college student development at a Midwestern university. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity development models and implications for practice. New directions for Student Services, 111, 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blando, J. (2011). Counseling older adults. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Bowman, L., & Bryant, L. (2011). The application of social learning theory to understanding smoking behavior among LGBTQ individuals. Retrieved July 1, 2014 from www.adulter.org/Proceedings/2011/papers/bowman_bryant.pdf.
  20. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). The ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brooks, V. R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA: D. C. Health.Google Scholar
  22. Burleson, W. E. (2005). Bi America: Myths, truths, and struggles of an invisible community. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  23. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of sex. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Butler, R. N. (1994). Dispelling ageism: The cross-cutting intervention. Changing perceptions of aging and the aged. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54(3), 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cass, V. C. (1984). Homosexual identity: A concept in need of definition. Journal of Homosexuality, 9(2–3), 105–126.Google Scholar
  29. Centers for Desiease Control. (2014). The sociological-ecological model: A framework for prevention. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/violencePrevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html.
  30. Chapman, B., & Brannock, J. (1987). Proposed model of lesbian identity development: An empirical examination. Journal of Homosexuality, 14(3/4), 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coleman, E. (1982). Developmental stages of the coming-out process. W. Paul, J. D. Weinrich, J. C. Gonsiorek & M. E. Hotvedt (eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological and biological issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification. (2010). Code of professional ethics for rehabilitation counselors. Available from http://www.crccertification.com/filrbin/pdf/crcCodeOfEthics.pdf.
  33. Cook, J. B. (1994). Community development theory. Retrieved June 30, 2014 from http://extension.missouri.edu/p/MP568.
  34. Corey, G. (2103) Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole.Google Scholar
  35. Cox, N., Dewaele, A., van Houtte, M., & Vincke, J. (2011). Stress-related growth, coming out, and internalized homonegativity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. An experiment of stress-related growth within the minority stress model. Journal of Homosexuality, 58, 117–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cox, N., Vanden Berghe, W., Dewaele, A., & Vincke, J. (2009). General and minority stress in an LGB population in Flanders. Journal of LGBT Health Research, 4(4), 181–194. Google Scholar
  37. Creed, B. (1995). Lesbian bodies: Tribades, tomboys, and tarts. In E. Grosz & E. Probyn (Eds.), Sexy bodies: The strange carnalities of feminism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Crisp, C., Wayland, S., & Gordon, T. (2008). Older gay, Lesbian, and bisexual adults: Tools for age-competent and gay affirmative practice. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 20(1/2), 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 321–333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Devor, A. H. (2004). Witnessing and mirroring: A fourteen-stage model of transsexual identity formation. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatry, 8(1/2), 41–67.Google Scholar
  41. DiClemente, R. J., Salazar, L. F., & Crosby, R. A. (2013). Health behavior theory for public health: Principles, foundations, and applications. Burlington, MA: Jones and Barlett Learning.Google Scholar
  42. Dobb, M. (Ed.). (1979). A contribution to the critique of political economy. London, Lawrence & Whishart.Google Scholar
  43. Dziengel, L. E. (2008). Older same sex couples and ambiguous loss theory: The mutual existence of ambiguity and resiliency. Doctoral dissertation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  44. Eliason, M. J. (1996). An inclusive model of lesbian identity. Journal of Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Identity, 1(1), 3–19.Google Scholar
  45. Eliason, M. J., & Schope, R. (2007). Shifting sands or solid foundation? Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender identity formation. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities (pp. 3–26). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  47. Faderman, L. (1984). The “new gay” lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 10(3/4), 65–75.Google Scholar
  48. Fassinger, R. E., & Miller, B. A. (1996). Validation of an inclusive model of sexual minority formation on a sample of gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 32(2), 53–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Feinberg, L. (1996). Transgender warriors: Making history from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Feinberg, L. (1998). Trans liberation: Beyond pink and blue. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  51. Fox, R. C. (1995). Bisexual identities. In A. R. D’Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 48–86). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Freud, S. (1949). An outline of psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  53. Friedman, B. D., & Allen, K. N. (2011). Systems theory. In J. Brandell (Ed.), Theory and practice of clinical social work (pp. 3–18). New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Fritz, K. (1993). The bisexual option (2nd ed.). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  55. Fung, H. H., & Carstensen, L. L. (2006). Goals change when life’s fragility is primed: Lessons learned from older adults, the September 11 attacks and SARS. Social Cognition, 24(3), 248–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Germain, C. B. (1973). An ecological perspective in case work. Social Casework, 54, 323–330.Google Scholar
  57. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Gladding, S. T. (2011). Family therapy: History, theory, and practice (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  59. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  60. Goldner, V. (1988). Generation and gender: Normative and covert hierarchies. Family Process, 27, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gratwick, S., Jihanian, L. J., Holloway, I. W., Sanchez, M., & Sullivan, K. (2014). Social work practice with LBGT seniors. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 57, 889. doi: 10.1080/01634372.2014.885475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grossman, A. H. (2008). Conducting research among older lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 20(1/2), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haggerty, J. (2006). Psychodynamic therapy. Psych central. Retrieved July 1, 2014 From http://psycentral.com/lib/psychodynamic-therapy/000119.
  64. Halberstam, J. (1998). Female masculinity. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Hall, R. L., & Fine, M. (2005). The stories we tell: The lives and friendship of two older black lesbians. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harley, D. A., Stansbury, K., Nelson, M., & Espinosa, C. T. (2014). A profile of rural elderly African American lesbians: Meeting their needs. In H. F. O. Vakalahi, G. M. Simpson, & N. Giunta (Eds.), The collective spirit of aging across cultures (pp. 133–155). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hash, K. M., & Rogers, A. (2013). Clinical practice with older LGBT clients: Overcoming lifelong stigma through strength and resilience. Clinical Social Work Journal, 41(3), 249–257.Google Scholar
  68. Heaphy, B. (2007). Sexualities, gender and ageing. Current Sociology, 55(2), 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hooyman, N. R., & Kiyak, H. A. (2008). Social gerontology: A multidisciplinary perspective (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  70. Huebner, D., & Davis, M. (2007). Perceived antigay discrimination and physical health outcomes. Health Psychology, 26, 627–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hughes, A. K., Harold, R. D., & Boyer, J. (2011). Awareness of LGBT aging issues among aging services network providers. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 54, 659–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Humphreys, N. A., & Quam, J. K. (1998). Middle-aged and old gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults. In G. A. Appleby & J. W. Anastas (Eds.), Not just a passing phase: Social work with gay, lesbian, and bisexual people (pp. 245–267). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Irish Association of Social Workers. (2011). Lesbian, gay and bisexual people: A guide to good practice for social workers. Dublin: Health Service Executive.Google Scholar
  74. Isaacs, G., & McKendricj, B. (1992). Male homosexuality in South Africa: Identity formation, culture, and crisis. Oxford University Press, USA.Google Scholar
  75. Jablonski, R. A., Vance, D. E., & Beattie, E. (2013). The invisible elderly: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(11), DOI:  10.3928/00989134-20130916-02.Google Scholar
  76. Kimmel, D., Rose, T., & David, S. (Eds.). (2006). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging: Research and clinical perspectives. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  78. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., Martin, C. E., & Gebhard, P. H. (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  79. Knight, B. (1996). Psychotherapy with older adults (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Kohlberg, L. (1973). The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment. Journal of Philosophy, 70(18), 630–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lancet. (2011). Health of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations. The Lancet, 377, 1211.Google Scholar
  82. Lawson-Ross, A. D. (2013, August). Testing the theory of stigma competence with gay, lesbian and bisexual adults over age 60. Dissertation, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio.Google Scholar
  83. Lesser, J. G., & Pope, D. S. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment: Theory and practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  84. Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. New York: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.Google Scholar
  85. Levinson, D. J. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  86. Levinson, D. J. (1996). The seasons of a woman’s life. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  87. Mabey, J. E. (2011). Counseling older adults in LGBT communities. The professional Counselor: Research and Practice, 1(1), 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mattaini, M. A., & Meyer, C. H. (2002). The ecosystems perspective: Implications for practice. Retrieved July 1, 2014 from http://home.earthlink.net/~mattaini?Ecosystems.html.
  89. Maybe, J. E. (2007). Spirituality and religion in the lives of gay men and lesbian women. In L. Badgett & J. Frank (Eds.), Sexual orientation discrimination: An international perspective (pp. 225–235). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. McCarn, S. R., & Fassinger, R. E. (1997). Revisioning sexual minority identity formation: A new model of lesbian identity and its implications for counseling and research. The Counseling Psychologist, 24(3), 508–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved July 1, 2014 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html.
  92. Mendes, P. P. (2008). Teaching community development to social work students: A critical reflection. Community Development Journal, 44(2), 248–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Meyer, I. H. (1995). Identity, stress, and resilience in lesbian, gay men, and bisexuals of color. The Counseling Psychologist, 38, 442–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Meyer, I. H. (2010). Identity, stress, and resilience in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals of color. The Counseling Psychologist, 38, 442–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Minton, H. L., & McDonald, G. J. (1984). Homosexual identity formation as a developmental process. Journal of Homosexuality, 8(1), 47–60.Google Scholar
  97. Morales, E. S. (1989). Ethnic minority families and minority gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 17, 217–239. Google Scholar
  98. Nutterbrock, L., Rosenblum, A., & Blumenstein, R. (2002). Transgender identity affirmation and mental health. International Journal of Transgenderism, 6(4), 237–256.Google Scholar
  99. Mullaly, B. (2002). Challenging oppression: A critical social work approach. Canada: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Orel, N. A. (2004). Gay, lesbian, and bisexual elders. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 43(2), 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Payne, M. (1997). Modern social work theory. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.Google Scholar
  102. Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child. London: Kegan, Paul, Trench. Trubner and Company.Google Scholar
  103. Plummer, K. (1973). Sexual stigma: An interactionist account. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  104. Porter, M., Russell, C., & Sullivan, G. (2004). Gay, old, and poor: Service delivery to aging gay men in inner city Sydney, Australia. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 16(2), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Prochaska, J. O. (1979). Sysyems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  106. Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1986). Toward a comprehensive model of change (pp. 3–27). New York, NY: Springer. Google Scholar
  107. Quam, J. K. (2004). Issues in gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender aging. In W. Swan (Ed.), Handbook of gay, lesbian and transgender administration and policy (pp. 137–156). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
  108. Quandt, S. A., Mc Donald, J., Bell, R. A., & Arcury, T. A. (1999). Aging research in multiethnic rural communities: Gaining entree through communty involvement. Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology, 14(2), 113–130.Google Scholar
  109. Renn, K. A., & Bilodeau, B. (2005). Queer student leaders: A case study of identity development and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender student involvement at a Midwestern research university. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 2(4), 49–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Reynolds, A. I., & Pope, R. L. (1991). The complexities of diversity: Exploring multiple oppressions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 174–180.Google Scholar
  111. Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  112. Salazar, L. F., Stephenson, R. B., Sullivan, P. S., & Tarver, R. (2013). Development and validation of HIV-related dyadic measures for men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 50(2), 164–177.Google Scholar
  113. Saleeby, D. (1996). The strength perspective in social work practice. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  114. Satterfield, J. M., & Crabb, R. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in an older gay man: A clinical case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schneider, M. J. (2013). Introduction to public health (4th ed.). Burlington, VA: Jones & Barlett Learning.Google Scholar
  116. Schope, R. D. (2005). Who’s afraid of growing old? Gay and lesbian perception of aging. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(4), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Siegel, S., & Lowe, R., Jr. (1994). Uncharted lives: Understanding the life passages of gay men. New York: Dutton. Google Scholar
  118. Storms, M. D. (1978). Sexual orientation and self-perception. In P. Pliner, K. R. Blanstein, I. M. Spigel, T. Alloway, & L. Krames (Eds.), Perception of emotion in self and others: advances in the study of communication and affect (Vol. 5, pp. 165–180). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  119. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  120. Sullivan, K. (2011). The experience of senior housing for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender seniors: An exploratory study. Portland, Oregon: Portland State University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Szymanski, D. M., & Gupta, A. (2009). Examining the relationship between multiple internalized oppressions and African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning persons’ self-esteem and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tan, A. (2009). Community development theory and practice: Bridging the divide between ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ levels of social work. Paper presented at the North American Association of Christian in Social Work. Indianapolis Indiana. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from www.nacsw.org/Publications/Proceedings2009/TanACommunity.pdf.
  123. Troiden, R. (1988). Gay and lesbian identity: A sociological analysis. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall. Google Scholar
  124. Vaughan, M., & Waehler, C. (2010). Coming out growth: Conceptualizing and measuring stress-related growth associated with coming out to others as a sexual minority. Journal of Adult Development, 17, 94–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wilchins, R. A. (2002). Queerer bodies. In J. Nestle, C. Howell, & R. A. Wilchins (Eds.), Genderqueer: Voices from beyond the sexual binary. Alyson: Los Angeles.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations