Models with several species and trophic levels
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The interspecific competition and predation models for two species interaction, presented in Chaps. 6 and 7, can be used as building blocks for designing more general mechanisms and ecosystems. Moving beyond the two species framework, we are led to consider non-planar systems and we meet systems that are mathematically more complex, possibly requiring specific treatment and analysis, and provide new insights into ecological dynamics. Even though we will not aim to a complete description of the World in a Wall, this chapter is devoted to a few cases of three species dynamics that illustrate some complexities of multiple species interaction and introduce to the use of some more advanced mathematical technique.
KeywordsPeriodic Solution Hopf Bifurcation Unstable Manifold Stable Manifold Global Attractor
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