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Pre-grasp Interaction for Object Acquisition in Difficult Tasks

Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 95)

Abstract

In natural manipulation activities of daily living, actions for object grasping must respect several constraints for successful task completion. For example, grasping actions must satisfy at a minimum the reachability of grasp contacts on the object surface, collision avoidance with obstacles, and kinematic as well as strength limits of the hand. In challenging manipulation scenarios with high constraints, direct reaching actions to grasp the object in place may not be sufficient for object acquisition. We have observed that humans use pre-grasp interaction to adjust the object placement during the grasping process. For example, an object may be slid or tumbled on its support surface before the final grasp contacts are achieved. In this chapter we provide an overview of the variety of pre-grasp actions that we have observed from a video survey of human manipulation activities in natural home and occupational environments. We then present our studies of object reorientation by rotation, as a particular type of human pre-grasp interaction. Finally we examine the utility of pre-grasp rotation for increasing object reachability and grasp reuse for a robot manipulator.

Keywords

Pre-grasp interaction Manipulation Rotation Pushing Daily activities Task difficulty 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Roberta Klatzky, Howard Seltmann, Garth Zeglin, and Justin Macey for their contributions to the studies presented in this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.The School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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