Multi-finger Haptic Displays for Characterization of Hand Response

Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 95)


This chapter will describe some properties of multi-finger haptic interaction and two devices which support it. Multi-finger haptic interaction can involve many contacts with the environment, but can also involve only one contact point when mediated by a tool such as a pen. As multiple fingers interact with the environment, their individual biomechanics and their sensory properties interact to form the net mechano-sensory properties of the interaction. This chapter will look at such interactions in two particular cases, spatially varying stiffness of the pen grasp, and sensory thresholds of multi-finger versus single finger interaction with haptic features. To characterize the stiffness of the pen-like grasp in various directions, we describe experiments in which force steps (randomized in amplitude and direction) were applied to subjects’ pen-like tools in the plane tangential to the tip. From these, the stiffness ellipse could be identified. A dynamical model of the fingers positioned similarly to the user’s grasp was used to predict the stiffness ellipsoids with similar results. The ellipsoids were shown to be a function of the squeezing force with which the subjects performed the grasps. Much of the research on sensitivity and sensory thresholds is based on measurements with a single finger. We developed a multi-finger haptic device (MFHD) to allow two high quality degrees of freedom for each of four fingers in a natural pose. With this device we could compare the sensory thresholds between single finger and multiple finger haptic exploration.


Pen-grasp  Pen-based haptic device Multi-finger haptic device Hand impedance/performance 


  1. 1.
    P. Buttolo, Characterization of human pen grasp with haptic displays. Ph.D. Dissertation, June 1996Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.H. King, R. Donlin, B. Hannaford, Perceptual thresholds for single vs. multi-finger haptic interaction, in Haptics Symposium, 2010 IEEE, pp. 95–99. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.C. Burdea, Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Jacobsen, F. Smith, D. Backman, E. Iversen, High performance, high dexterity, force reflective teleoperator II, in Proceedings, ANS Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems (ANSI, New York, 1991)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Hashimoto, M. Boss, Y. Kuni, F. Harashima, Intelligent cooperative manipulation system using dynamic force simulator, in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2598–2603 (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.Z. Tan, W.M. Rabinowitz, A new multi-finger tactual display. Proc. Haptics Symp. ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Div. DSC-58, 515–522 (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.L. Turner, D.H. Gomez, M.R. Tremblay, M.R. Cutkosky, Preliminary tests of an arm-grounded haptic feedback device in telemanipulation. Proc. Haptics Symp. ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Div. DSC-64, 145–149 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Kron, G. Schmidt, Multi-fingered tactile feedback from virtual and remote environments, in Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2003. HAPTICS 2003 Proceedings, 22–23 March 2003, pp. 16–23Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Gosselin, T. Jouan, J. Brisset, C. Andriot, Design of a wearable haptic interface for precise finger interactions in large virtual environments, in Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2005. WHC 2005. First World Haptics Congress, 18–20 March 2005, pp. 202–207Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Gillespie, L. Rosenberg, Design of high-fidelity haptic display for one-dimensional force reflection applications. in Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technology, Proceedings of the SPIE East Coast Conference, pp. 44–54 (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Casiez, P. Plénacoste, C. Chaillou, B. Semail, The digihaptic, a new three degrees of freedom multi-finger haptic device, in Proceedings of Virtual Reality International Conference, pp. 35–39 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Monroy, M. Oyarzabal, M. Ferre, A. Campos, J. Barrio, Masterfinger: Multi-finger haptic interface for collaborative environments, in Haptics: Perception, Devices and Scenarios, pp. 411–419. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.A. Avizzano, S. Marcheschi, M. Angerilli, M. Fontana, M. Bergamasco, T. Gutierrez, M. Mannegeis, A multi-finger haptic interface for visually impaired people, in Proceedings. ROMAN 2003. The 12th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2003, pp. 165–170. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Kohno, S. Walairacht, S. Hasegawa, Y. Koike, M. Sato, Evaluation of two-handed multi-finger haptic device spidar-8, in ICAT2001, pp. 135–140 (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neville Hogan, Adaptive control of mechanical impedance by coactivation of antagonist muscles. Trans Autom Control IEEE 29(8), 681–690 (1984)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Hogan, Controlling impedance at the man/machine interface. In Proceedings.of the 1989 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 1989, pp. 1626–1631. IEEE (1989)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F.A. Mussa-Ivaldi, N. Hogan, E. Bizzi, Neural, mechanical, and geometric factors subserving arm posture in humans. J. Neurosci. 5(10), 2732–2743 (1985)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Tsuji, K. Goto, M. Moritani, M. Kaneko, P. Morasso, Spatial characteristics of human hand impedance in multi-joint arm movements, in Intelligent Robots and Systems’ 94. ‘Advanced Robotic Systems and the Real World’, IROS’94. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ/GI International Conference on, vol. 1, pp. 423–430. IEEE (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.D. Howe, A.Z. Hajian, Identification of the mechanical impedance at the human finger tip. J. Biomech. Eng. 119, 109–114 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.E. Milner, D.W. Franklin, Two dimensional endpoint stiffness of human fingers for flexor and extensor loads, in Proceedings of the 1995 ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dynamic Systems and Control Divison, San Francisco, DSC-Vol 57, 649–656 (1995)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.M. Anderson, R.F. Romfh, S.L Wangensteen, Technique in the Use of Surgical Tools (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1980)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Tendick, R. Jennings, G. Tharp, and L.W. Stark, Sensing and manipulation problems in endoscopic surgery: experiment, analysis, and observation. Presence 2(1), 66–81 (1993) (Winter)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.C. Venema, Experiments in surface perception using a haptic display. Ph.D. Thesis, April 1999Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K.B. Shimoga, A survey of perceptual feedback issues in dexterous telemanipulation. I. finger force feedback, in Proceedings IEEE VRAIS-93, pages 263–270, Seattle, WA, Sept 1993Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Srinivasan, R.H. LaMotte, Tactile discrimination of shape: responses of slowly and rapidly adapting mechanoreceptive afferents to a step indented into the monkey fingerpad. J. Neurosci., 7, 1682–1697 (1987)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.H. LaMotte, R.F. Friedman, C. Lu, P.S. Khalsa, M.A. Srinivasan, Raised object on a planar surface stroked across the fingerpad: responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors to shape and orientation. J. Neurophysiol. 80, 2446–2466 (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Moy, U. Singh, E. Tan, R.S. Fearing, Human psychophysics for teletaction system design. Haptics-e Electron. J. Haptics Res. 1(3), 18 (2000)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.J. Lederman, R.L. Klatzky, Feeling through a probe. Proc. ASME Haptics Symp. Dyn. Syst. Control DSC-64,127–131 (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.M. Weisenberger, M.J. Krier, M.A. Rinker, Judging the orientation of sinusoidal and square-wave virtual gratings presented via 2-dof and 3-dof haptic interfaces. Haptics-e Electron. J. Haptics Res. 1(3), 1–20 (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.C. Stevens, E. Foulke, M.Q. Patterson, Tactile acuity, aging, and braille readings in long-term blindness. J. Exp. Psychol. Appl. 2(2), 91–106 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L.A. Jones, Perception and control of finger forces. Proc. Haptics Symp. ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Div. DSC-64, 133–137 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Allin, Y. Matsuoka, R. Klatzky, Measuring just noticeable differences for haptic force feedback: implications for rehabilitation, in Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2002. HAPTICS 2002. Proceedings, 24,25 March 2002, pp. 299–302Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    H.F. Yuan, C.M. Reed, N.I. Durlach, Temporal onset-order discrimination through tactual sense. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 3139–3148 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.C. Craig, Vibrotactile spatial summation. Percept. Psychophys. 4, 351–354 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.J. Brisben, S.S. Hsiao, K.O. Johnson, Detection of vibration transmitted through an object grasped in the hand. J. Neurophysiol. 81, 1548–1558 (1999)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.M. Refshauge, D.F. Collins, S.C. Gandevia, The detection of human finger movement is not facilitated by input from receptors in adjacent digits. J. Physiol. 551, 371–377 (2003)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.F. Collins, K.M. Refshauge, S.C. Gandevia, Sensory integration in the perception of movements at the human metacarpophalangeal joint. J. Physiol. 529(2), 505–515 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A.M. West, M. R. Cutkosky, Detection of real and virtual fine surface features with a haptic interface and stylus. Proc. ASME Haptics Symp. Dyn. Syst. Control Div. DSC-61,159–165 (1997)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S.C. Venema, B. Hannaford, Experiments in fingertip perception of surface discontinuities. Int. J. Robot. Res. 19(7), 684–696 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. Buttolo, B. Hannaford, Pen based force display for precision manipulation of virtual environments, in Proceedings VRAIS-95, pp. 217–225, Raleigh, NC, March 1995Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. Buttolo, B. Hannaford, Advantages of actuation redundancy for the design of haptic displays, in Proceedings, ASME Fourth Annual Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, San Francisco, vol. DSC-57-2, pp. 623–630, Nov 1995Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Buttolo, D.Y. Hwang, B. Hannaford, Hard disk actuators for mini-teleoperation, in Proceeding SPIE Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies Symposium, Boston, 31 Oct 1994, pp. 55–61Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jeffrey Kerr, Bernard Roth, Analysis of multifingered hands. Int J Robot Res 4(4), 3–17 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M.T Mason, J. Kenneth Salisbury Jr, Robot Hands and the Mechanics of Manipulation (The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1985)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robert N Rohling and John M Hollerbach. Optimized fingertip mapping for teleoperation of dextrous robot hands. In Robotics and Automation, 1993. Proceedings., 1993 IEEE International Conference on, pages 769–775. IEEE, 1993Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thomas Speeter, Transforming human hand motion for telemanipulation. Presence Teleoper Virtual Environ 1(1), 63–79 (1992)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T.H Massie, J. Kenneth Salisbury, The phantom haptic interface: a device for probing virtual objects, in Proceedings of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, vol. 55, pp. 295–300. Kluwer (1994)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y. Nakamura, Advanced Robotics: Redundancy and Optimization (Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Inc., Reading, 1990)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Buttolo, B. Hannaford, Direct drive manipulator for pen-based force display. U.S. Patent #5,642,469, 24 June 1997Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. Leuschke, E.K.T. Kurihara, J. Dosher, B. Hannaford, High fidelity multi finger haptic display in Proceedings World Haptics Congress 2005, pp. 606–608, March 2005Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    S.C. Venema, E. Matthes, B. Hannaford, Flat coil actuator having coil embedded in linkage. U.S. Patent #6,437,770, 20 Aug 2002Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. Donlin, R. Leuschke, B. Hannaford, Experimental evaluation of attachment methods for a multifinger haptic device, in Proceedings of World Haptics 2007, Japan, 22 March 2007Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Dosher, G. Lee, B. Hannaford, How low can you go? Detection thresholds for small haptic effects. in Touch in Virtual Environments, Proceedings USC Workshop on Haptic Interfaces, ed. by M. McLaughlin (Prentice Hall, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. Dosher, B. Hannaford, Detection of small haptic effects, in Proceedings, SPIE Teleoperator and Telemanipulator Workshop, Boston MA, 29 Oct 29 2001Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biorobotics Lab, Department of Electrical EngineeringThe University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Research & Advanced EngineeringFord Motor CompanyDearbornUSA

Personalised recommendations