Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of GaN Layer on Sapphire (0001) Under Various Process Conditions

  • Sunil S. Kushvaha
  • M. Senthil Kumar
  • Bipin K. Gupta
  • K. K. Maurya
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


We have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on sapphire (0001) substrates using a ultra-high vacuum laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system at different growth temperatures, deposition rate and nitrogen species. The HVPE grown GaN solid target was ablated at laser energy density ~5 J/cm2 with laser frequency ~ 5 Hz (low flux) and 10 Hz (high flux) in presence of r.f. nitrogen plasma. Structural properties of the epitaxial GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). At high flux, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of x-ray diffraction rocking curve of GaN (0002) peak decreases with increasing growth temperature from 500 to 720 °C. The GaN film grown at 700 °C with low flux shows a large FWHM (368 arc sec) with small grain sizes in comparison to the GaN film grown with high flux (FWHM: 110 arc sec). We have also studied the effect of high pressure nitrogen ambient during ablation of GaN target for growth of GaN films on sapphire with and without pre-nitridation of sapphire at growth temperature 500 °C. The typical PL measurement on the GaN film grown on sapphire using laser MBE system shows the high quality of GaN film with minimum defects. The obtained results suggest that the present growth technique could be an alternative for fabrication of high quality GaN based devices.


GaN Laser molecular beam epitaxy Sapphire High resolution X-ray diffraction Atomic force microscopy Photoluminescence 


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The authors are grateful to Prof. R.C. Budhani for the constant encouragement and support. The author would like to thank Mr. Sandeep Singh for AFM measurements. This work was funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) under projects (NWP-25 and PSC0109).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil S. Kushvaha
    • 1
  • M. Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • Bipin K. Gupta
    • 1
  • K. K. Maurya
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

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