Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Carrier Statistics in Carbon Nano-Allotropes

  • Vijay K. Arora
  • Arkaprava Bhattacharyya
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


The integrated carrier statistics of Dirac Fermions in carbon allotropes comprising graphene nanolayer, graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is described. Nonequilibrium Arora’s Distribution Function (NEADF) is the basis of transformation of randomly oriented to directed moments in the presence of an electric field, leading to saturation that is limited to the intrinsic Fermi velocity \( v_{Fo} \approx 10^{6} m/s \) for carbon-based devices. In the semiconducting state, the intrinsic velocity is the saturation velocity that is substantially below \( v_{Fo} \) depending on the carrier concentration. Velocity-field relation arising from NEADF is elaborated by a tanh function as a result of degeneracy temperature that rises linearly with carrier concentration in the strongly degenerate regime. Current–voltage characteristics and high-field-initiated resistance surge indicate the transformed nature of existing paradigms.


NEADF Graphene CNT GNR High-field transport Ballistic transport Quantum conductance 


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VKA thanks the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for an award of distinguished visiting professorship and UTM Research University Grant (GUP) Q.J130000.2623.04H32 of the Ministry of Education. AB is appreciative of the assistance provided him through the UTM postdoctoral fellowship program. The authors also thank Dr. Michael L. P. Tan for help in computation and digitization of the experimental data.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM SkudaiJohorMalaysia
  2. 2.Division of Engineering and PhysicsWilkes UniversityWilkes-BarreUSA

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