Comparative Study on Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) of the E-beam and Sputter Deposited Nichrome Thin Film for Precise Temperature Control of Microheater for MEMS Gas Sensor

Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Nichrome (Ni–Cr 80/20 wt %), alloy of Ni and Cr is used as a microheater element of the MEMS microhotplate embedded in the metal oxide based gas sensor. Nichrome is used as a heater element for its unique properties like high resistivity, low cost, low Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR), anti oxidant, anti corrosive nature, no need for extra adhesive layer as required for Pt or Au and also compatibility with standard silicon fabrication technology. Microheater with low TCR is the very important property to avoid localized hotspot and precisely controlling the active area temperature of the microhotplate for sensing the gases at different temperature. In this paper, Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) of the thin film of nichrome was studied by depositing two popular physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods one is Electron Beam Evaporation and other is DC Sputtering. The TCR parameter was extracted by placing the resistor in wafer level on the thermal chuck and measurement was done by varying the temperature of the thermal chuck using ATT System from room temperature up to 200 °C and measuring the resistance of the microheater using Agilent 4284A LCR meter. The structural characterization was carried out for finding the grain size and elemental composition of Ni/Cr of the as-deposited thin film using FESEM and EDX respectively. The effect of annealing at 300 °C temperature in N2 ambient of the e-beam deposited nichrome thin film on the TCR was also analyzed.

Keywords

Nichrome Microhotplate TCR PVD 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Director, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani Dr. Chandra Shekhar is thanked for his constant encouragement and support. FESEM images were taken at JMI New Delhi for analyzing the grain size of Nichrome thin film. This work is related to 12th five year (2012-2017) plan project on MEMS gas sensors platform-II (WP-5) at CSIR-CEERI.

References

  1. 1.
    G. Eason, I. Simon I, N. Barsan, M. Bauer, U. Weimar, “Micromachined metal oxide gas sensors: opportunities to improve sensor performance”, Sensors Actuators B, vol. 73, pp. 1-26, 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Semancik, R.E. Cavicchi, M.C. Wheeler, J.E. Tiffany, G.E. Poirier, R.M. Walton, J.S. Suehle, B. Panchapakesan, D.L. DeVoe, “Microhotplate platforms for chemical sensor research”, Sens. Actuators B 77 (2001) 579–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Mele, F. Santagata, E. Iervolino, M. Mihailovic, T. Rossi, A.T. Tran, H. Schellevis, J.F. Creemer, P.M. Sarro, “A molybdenum MEMS microhotplate for high-temperature operation”, Sensors and Actuators A, 2012.doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2011.11.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.Z. Ali, F. Udrea, W.I. Milne, and J.W. Gardner, “Tungsten-Based SOI Microhotplates for Smart Gas Sensors”, Journal of Micromechanical Systems, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1408-1417. doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2008.2007228 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Puigcorbe, D. Vogel, B. Michel, A. Vila, I. Gracia, C. Cane, J.R. Morante, “Thermal and mechanical analysis of micromachined gas sensors”, J. Micromech. Microeng. vol. 13, pp. 548–556, 2003 doi: stacks.iop.org/JMM/13/548Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.F. Creemer, D. Briand, H.W. Zandbergen,W.V. Vlist, C.R. Boer, N.F. de Rooi, P.M. Sarro, “Microhotplates with TiN heaters”, Sensors and Actuators A, vol.148, pp. 416–421, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Rolke, “Nichrome thin film technology and its application”, Electrocomponent Science and Technology, 1981, Vol.9, pp. 51-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Baroncini a,, P. Placidi a, G.C. Cardinali b, A. Scorzoni “Thermal characterization of a microheater for micromachined gas sensors”, Sensors and Actuators A 115 (2004) 8–14 doi:  10.1016/j.sna.2004.03.012
  9. 9.
    C. Tsamis, A.G. Nassiopoulou, A. Tserepi “Thermal properties of suspended porous silicon micro-hotplates for sensor applications”, Sensors and Actuators B 95 (2003) 78–82 doi: 10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00409-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clyde H. Lane “Nichrome resistor properties and reliability”, Rome air development center,U. S. department of commerce, June 1973`Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chien Fat Chau and Tracy Melvin, “Design and fabrication of a quasi-ordered nanoporous silicon membrane suitable for thermally induced drug release”, J. Micromech. Microeng. 22 (2012) 085028 (14 pp) doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/08502
  12. 12.
    Surajit Das, Jamil Akhtar, “MEMS μ-hotplate of SiO2/Si3N4 composite membrane with nichrome heater for gas sensor applications”,IEEE_ICE- ID Bali, Indonesia, 23-24 October 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thin film evaporation guide, Vacuum Engineering & Materials Co. Inc. USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sensors and Nano-Technology GroupCSIR- Central Electronics Engineering Research InstitutePilaniIndia

Personalised recommendations