A Simulation Study on Factors Affecting Airwaves Using Factorial Design

  • Muhammad Abdulkarim
  • Afza Shafie
  • Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
  • Radzuan Razali
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8237)


In shallow water Sea Bed Logging (SBL) survey, air layer response from the Electro-Magnetic (EM) signals creates a disturbance known as the source-induced airwaves. The airwaves commonly denote the energy that propagates from the EM source via the atmosphere to the receiver on the seabed. As a result, the airwaves dominate the measured survey data, so that the sought-after signals from possible hydrocarbon layers in the subsurface can be totally masked. In this study, a 5x5 factorial design is used to analyze the effect of frequency, seawater conductivity, sediment conductivity, seawater depth and offset on the magnitude of airwaves. The result based on F-statistics, indicates that frequency has higher significant effect on the magnitude of the airwaves followed by the seawater depth, offset, seawater conductivity and sediment conductivity in that order.


Airwaves Factorial Design F-Statistics Sea Bed Logging Shallow Water 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Abdulkarim
    • 1
  • Afza Shafie
    • 2
  • Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
    • 1
  • Radzuan Razali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer & Information SciencesUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASTronohMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Fundamental & Applied SciencesUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASTronohMalaysia

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