Systems Overview of Ono

A DIY Reproducible Open Source Social Robot
  • Cesar Vandevelde
  • Jelle Saldien
  • Maria-Cristina Ciocci
  • Bram Vanderborght
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8239)


One of the major obstacles in the study of HRI (human-robot interaction) with social robots is the lack of multiple identical robots that allow testing with large user groups. Often, the price of these robots prohibits using more than a handful. A lot of the commercial robots do not possess all the necessary features to perform specific HRI experiments and due to the closed nature of the platform, large modifications are nearly impossible. While open source social robots do exist, they often use high-end components and expensive manufacturing techniques, making them unsuitable for easy reproduction. To address this problem, a new social robotics platform, named Ono, was developed. The design is based on the DIY mindset of the maker movement, using off-the-shelf components and more accessible rapid prototyping and manufacturing techniques. The modular structure of the robot makes it easy to adapt to the needs of the experiment and by embracing the open source mentality, the robot can be easily reproduced or further developed by a community of users. The low cost, open nature and DIY friendliness of the robot make it an ideal candidate for HRI studies that require a large user group.


Do-It-Yourself emotions facial expressions human-robot interaction maker movement open hardware open source rapid prototyping robotic user interface social robot 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cole, J.: About Face. MIT Pr. (1998) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mehrabian, A.: Communication without words. Psychology Today 2, 53–56 (1968)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zecca, M., Endo, N., Momoki, S., Itoh, K., Takanishi, A.: Design of the humanoid robot KOBIAN-preliminary analysis of facial and whole body emotion expression capabilities. In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2008), pp. 487–492 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaneko, K., Kanehiro, F., Morisawa, M., Miura, K., Nakaoka, S., Kajita, S.: Cybernetic Human Hrp-4c. In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2009), pp. 7–14 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miwa, H., Itoh, K., Matsumoto, M., Zecca, M., Takanobu, H., Roccella, S., Carrozza, M.C., Dario, P., Takanishi, A.: Effective emotional expressions with emotion expression humanoid robot WE-4RII. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent RObots and Systems (IROS 2004), pp. 2203–2208 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tsagarakis, N.G., Metta, G., Sandini, G., Vernon, D., Beira, R., Becchi, F., Righetti, L., Santos-Victor, J., Ijspeert, A.J., Carrozza, M.C., et al.: iCub: the design and realization of an open humanoid platform for cognitive and neuroscience research. Advanced Robotics 21, 1151–1175 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breazeal, C.: Toward sociable robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 42, 167–175 (2003)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goris, K., Saldien, J., Vanderborght, B., Lefeber, D.: Mechanical design of the huggable robot Probo. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics 8, 481 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kozima, H., Michalowski, M.P., Nakagawa, C.: Keepon. International Journal of Social Robotics 1, 3–18 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dautenhahn, K., Nehaniv, C.L., Walters, M.L., Robins, B., Kose-Bagci, H., Mirza, N.A., Blow, M.: KASPAR–a minimally expressive humanoid robot for human–robot interaction research. Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 6, 369–397 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Mondada, F., Bonani, M., Raemy, X., Pugh, J., Cianci, C., Klaptocz, A., Magnenat, S., Zufferey, J.C., Floreano, D., Martinoli, A.: The e-puck, a robot designed for education in engineering, pp. 59–65 (Year)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malone, E., Lipson, H.: Fab@ Home: the personal desktop fabricator kit. Rapid Prototyping Journal 13, 245–255 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jones, R., Haufe, P., Sells, E., Iravani, P., Olliver, V., Palmer, C., Bowyer, A.: RepRap–the replicating rapid prototyper. Robotica 29, 177–191 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mellis, D., Banzi, M., Cuartielles, D., Igoe, T.: Arduino: An open electronic prototyping platform. In: Proc. CHI, vol. 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Quigley, M., Conley, K., Gerkey, B., Faust, J., Foote, T., Leibs, J., Wheeler, R., Ng, A.Y.: ROS: an open-source Robot Operating System (Year)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerkey, B., Vaughan, R.T., Howard, A.: The player/stage project: Tools for multi-robot and distributed sensor systems, Portugal, pp. 317–323 (Year)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bruyninckx, H.: Open robot control software: the OROCOS project. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2001 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baillie, J.C.: URBI: towards a universal robotic low-level programming language. In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2005), pp. 820–825 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Kuznetsov, S., Paulos, E.: Rise of the expert amateur: DIY projects, communities, and cultures, pp. 295–304. ACM (Year)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guizzo, E., Deyle, T.: Robotics Trends for 2012. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bartneck, C., Forlizzi, J.: A design-centred framework for social human-robot interaction, pp. 591–594. IEEE (Year)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V., Hager, J.C.: Facial action coding system 160 (1978)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ekman, P.: Are there basic emotions? Psychological Review 99, 550–553 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saldien, J., Goris, K., Vanderborght, B., Vanderfaeilli, J., Lefeber, D.: Expressing Emotions with the Huggable Robot Probo. International Journal of Social Robotics, Special Issue on Social Acceptance in HRI 2, 377–389 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kuhnlenz, K., Sosnowski, S., Buss, M.: Impact of Animal-Like Features on Emotion Expression of Robot Head EDDIE. Advanced Robotics 24(8), 1239–1255 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaya, N., Epps, H.H.: Relationship between color and emotion: a study of college students. College Student Journal 38, 396–405 (2004)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mori, M.: The uncanny valley. Energy 7, 33–35 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Russell, J.A.: A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, 1161 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Murphy, R., Nomura, T., Billard, A., Burke, J.: Human–Robot Interaction. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 17, 85–89 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cesar Vandevelde
    • 1
  • Jelle Saldien
    • 1
  • Maria-Cristina Ciocci
    • 1
  • Bram Vanderborght
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Industrial Systems and Product DesignGhent UniversityBelgium
  2. 2.Dept. of Mechanical EngineeringVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations