Safeguarding Sports Integrity Against Crime and Corruption: An Australian Perspective
Safeguarding the integrity of international sports has assumed greater urgency the world over. Sports bodies, associations, clubs, national teams, sports officials and law enforcement agencies are today dealing with a variety of threats ranging from match-fixing to corruption, illegal betting and use of performance and image enhancing drugs in sport. The Australian sporting world is not immune from these threats, and lately, the revelations of the involvement of organised criminal identities in sports, the world over, and in Australia shows the seriousness and complexity of the challenge international sport confronts. This chapter presents an Australian perspective on the nature of integrity threats that various sporting codes in Australia are facing and measures that can help deal with them. The authors discuss a number of match-fixing cases in the National Rugby league, A-League Football and cricket in Australia and identify different variants of sports corruption and vulnerabilities of professional sports to transnational and organised crime. The authors analyse how sports corruption from being a blind spot of the law enforcement agencies in Australia, until some years ago, has become one of their top priorities, yielding encouraging outcomes on various counts. This chapter takes a roll call of measures undertaken by the Commonwealth and state institutions, sports bodies and federations, clubs and national associations, and the law enforcement agencies to curb match-fixing, corruption and drug use, and preserve the integrity of sport in Australia. The recommendations furthered by the authors could be relevant for other countries as well.
KeywordsMoney Laundering Organise Crime Professional Sport International Cyclist Union International Sport
- Anderson, J. (2007). Legality of boxing, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Australian Crime Commission. (2011). Submission to the Australian Parliament’s Joint Select Committee into Gambling Reform. Reference 11/106554, Canberra, June 24, 2011.Google Scholar
- Australian Crime Commission. (2011). Organised crime in Australia 2011. Commonwealth of Australia. Canberra. Retrieved July 29, 2012, from http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/OCA/2011/oca2011.pdf.
- Australian Crime Commission. (2012). ACC annual report 2011-12. Retrieved July 3, 2013, from http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/annual_reports/1112/ACC _AR_2011-2012.pdf.
- Australian Crime Commission. (February 2013). Organised crime and drugs in sport: New generation performance and image enhancing drugs and organised criminal involvement in their use in professional sport. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/organised-crime-and-drugs-in-sports-feb2013.pdf.
- Australian Government Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport. (2012). Media release: National policy on match-fixing in sport. Retrieved May 9, 2012, from http://www.regional.gov.au/sport/programs/files/national_policy_match-fixing.pdf.
- Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA). (March 20, 2013). ASADA Media Statements: Organised crime and drugs in sport. Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.asada.gov.au/media/organised_crime_and_drugs_in_sport.html.
- Australian Sports Commission. The essence of Australian sport. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/312869/A4_brochure_7_05-V5.pdf.
- Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (2008), Money laundering methodologies, Typologies and case study reports. Canberra. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.austrac.gov.au/files/typ_2008_mlm.pdf.
- Bronitt, S. (2010). The criminal law of Australia. In M. Dubber & K. Heller (eds), The handbook of comparative criminal law (pp.49–96). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Button, M., Johnston, L and Frimpong, K. (2008). The fraud review and the policing of fraud: Laying the foundations for a centralised fraud police or counter fraud executive? Policing. 2:2. 241–250. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://policing.oxfordjournals.org.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/content/2/2/241.
- CBI’s’s report on cricket match-fixing and related malpractices. (October 2000). Central Bureau of Investigation. New Delhi. Retrieved July 4, 2012, from http://www.rediff.com/cricket/2000/nov/01bet.htm.
- Clark, J. (February 6, 2013). Fox footy expert Mark Robinson believes organised crime infiltrating AFL and more is to be revealed’. Fox Sports. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from http://www.foxsports.com.au/afl/afl-premiership/fox-footy-expert-mark-robinson-believes-organised-crime-infiltrating-afl-and-more-is-to-be-revealed/story-e6frf3e3-1226571909062 ?from=public_rss#.UXC8SrWmjLk.
- Dampney, J. and APP. (April 12, 2013). Drugs allegations “a terribly disturbing situation”, says Demetriou. AFL News. Retrieved April 17, 2013, from http://www.afl.com.au/news/2013-04-12/terribly-disturbing-situation.
- Dowsley, A. (February 16, 2013). AFL players caught on phone taps with drug dealers. Herald Sun. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/afl-players-caught-on-phone-taps-with-drug-dealers/story-fnat79vb-1226579152457.
- Financial Action Task Force Report. (July 2009). Money laundering through the football sector. Retrieved November 5, 2012, from http://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/ML%20through%20the %20Football %20Sector.pdf.
- Founding group on fight for irregular and illegal betting calls for a universal monitoring system. (May 14, 2013). International Olympics Committee. Retrieved June 4, 2013, from http://www.olympic.org/news/founding-group-on-fight-against-irregular-and-illegal-betting-calls-for-a-universal-monitoring-system/199073.
- Further Victorian integrity enhancements. (April 8, 2013). Thoroughbred News. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from http://www.thoroughbrednews.com.au/Australia/default.aspx?id=65883.
- Gatt, R. (February 8, 2013). A-League fights off match-fix reports. The Australian. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/sport/football/a-league-fights-off-match-fix-reports/story-fn63e0vj-1226573016528.
- Guardian Staff and agencies. (February 4, 2013). Europol: investigators identify 380 fixed football matches. The Guardian, Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2013/feb/04/europol-investigation-football-matchfixing.
- Hill, D. (2008). The fix. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.Google Scholar
- Lacey, D. (August 15, 2012). Corrupters who corrupt the corruptible. Australian Crime Commission address to the national public sector fraud and corruption congress. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/media/address-to-national-public-sector-fraud-corruption-congress.
- Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional and Bwin International Ltd, formerly Baw International Ltd v Departamento de Jogos da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa (2009) C-42/ECR I-7633, para 71. Retrieved September 12, 2012, from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:62007J0042:EN:HTML.
- Media Release. (May 9, 2011). FIFA makes historic contribution to INTERPOL in long-term fight against match-fixing. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2011/PR035.
- Neilson, S. (2011). Threats to the integrity of professional sports in Australia. International conference on Combatting Serious Crime and Corruption in Sport, Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security. Brisbane. July 27.Google Scholar
- New South Wales Law Reform Commission (2011) (NSWLRC 130). Cheating at gambling. Retrieved August 3, 2011, from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/lrc/ll_lrc.nsf/pages/LRC_reports.
- New South Wales Law Reform Commission. (2011). Consultation paper on cheating at gambling. CP12. Retrieved October 3, 201, from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.
- News Limited Network (April, 19, 2013). AFL demands Melbourne tell truth after allegations emerge over links with Stephen Dank. Fox Sports. Retrieved June 7, 2013, from http://www.foxsports.com.au/afl/afl-premiership/director-of-exercise-and-sports-science-australia-calls-into-question-the-qualifications-of-stephen-dank/story-e6frf3e3-1226623973899.
- Noble, R. K. (July 20, 2011). On the right path. The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/07/19/how-can-fifa-address-corruption-in-soccer/fifa-is-on-the-path-to-rooting-out-corruption.
- O’ Keeffe, M. (October 26, 2012). Lance Armstrong asked to return nearly $4M in Tour de France prize money by cycling’s international governing body. Daily News. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://www.nydailynews.com/sports/i-team/lance-asked-return-4m-tour-de-france-prize-money-article-1.1193242.
- Oxford Research. (April 2010). Examination of threats to the integrity of sport. Retrieved October 12, 2012, from http://www.eusportsplatform.eu/Files/Filer/examination %20 of% 20threats%20to%20sports%20integrity.pdf.Google Scholar
- Premier of Victoria. (February 7, 2013). New Victoria police sporting integrity intelligence unit. Retrieved March 5, 2013, from http://www.premier.vic.gov.au/media-centre/media-releases/5991-new-victoria-police-sporting-integrity-intelligence-unit.html.
- Ralph, J. (2012). Sports betting by AFL players has reached troubling levels, key figures say. The Advertiser. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from/sports betting-by-afl-players-has-reached-troubling-levels-key-figures-say/story-e6freck3-1226504893702.Google Scholar
- Report on corruption in international cricket. (2011) International Cricket Council. Retrieved November 4, 2012, from http://www.icc-cricket.com/anti_ corruption/condon-report.php.
- Review of sports betting regulation. (March 31, 2011). Glesson review of sports betting regulation in the state of Victoria. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from https://assets.justice.vic.gov.au/justice/resources/5c9236e3-f37e-440d-ae53-4dc5fbdef7ef/sports_betting_review_ 2011_report.pdf.
- Senator Kate Lundy. (May 4, 2013). Anti-doping and sports integrity funding boost. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://www.katelundy.com.au/2013/05/04/anti-doping-and-sports-integrity-funding-boost/.
- Sheehan, D. (2013). Transnational cooperation. International working group meeting on “Preserving sports integrity: Combating crime and corruption”. CEPS. Brisbane. June 5.Google Scholar
- Smith, P. (2011). Rogue operators make battle to maintain integrity of sport more difficult. The Australian. July 16. Retrieved November 9, 2012, from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/sport/opinion/rogue-operators-make-battle-to-maintain-integrity-of-sport-more-difficult/story-e6frg7t6-1226095581959.
- Transparency International (2011). Safe hands: Building integrity and transparency at FIFA. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/safe_hands_building_integrity_and_transparency_at_fifa.
- Transparency International (2013). Corruption in sport. Transparency International UK. Retrieved June 23, 2013, from http://www.transparency.org.uk/our-work/corruption-in-the-uk/sport.