Skip to main content

Introduction to Siwaliks

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Geology of the Nepal Himalaya

Part of the book series: Regional Geology Reviews ((RGR))

Abstract

Siwaliks representing very thick fluvial deposits; origin of term Siwalik; early investigations in India and Pakistan; stratigraphic classification of Northwest Sub-Himalaya; threefold classification: Lower, Middle, and Upper Siwaliks; Problems of threefold classification; other classifications; investigations in Nepal; fossil occurrence; early fossil finds; fossils from Nepal; mollusc and plant remains; depositional environment and sedimentation rates.

The composition of the Siwalik deposits shows that they are nothing else than the alluvial detritus derived from the subaerial waste of the mountains, swept down by their numerous rivers and streams and deposited at their foot.

—D.N. Wadia (1926, p. 231)

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Anderson RVV (1927) Tertiary stratigraphy and orogeny of the northern Punjab. Bull Geol Soc Am XXXVIII:665–720

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous (1832) Extracts from Dr. Royle’s explanatory address on the exhibition of the collections in natural history, at the meeting of the asiatic society, on the 7th March. J Asiat Soc Bengal I(3):96–100

    Google Scholar 

  • Appel E, Rösler W, Corvinus G (1991) Magnetostratigraphy of the Miocene-Pleistocene Surai Khola Siwaliks in west Nepal. Geophys J Int 105:191–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Auden JB (1934) The geology of the Krol belt. Records of the geological survey of India, vol LXVII, Part 4, pp 357–454 (with 9 plates including a geological map in colors, scale: 1 inch = 2 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Auden JB (1935) Traverses in the Himalaya. Records of the geological survey of India, vol LXIX, Part 2, pp 123–167 (with 6 plates including a geological sketch map)

    Google Scholar 

  • Awasthi N, Prasad M (1990) Siwalik plant fossils from Surai Khola area, Western Nepal. Palaeobotanist 38:298–318

    Google Scholar 

  • Barry JC, Lindsay EH, Jacobs LL (1982) A biostratigraphic zonation of the middle and upper Siwaliks of the Potwar Plateau of northern Pakistan. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 37:95–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blanford WT (1879a) The geology of western Sind. Memoirs of the geological survey of India, vol XVII, Art 1, pp 1–210 (with one colored geological map, 1 inch = 16 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanford WT (1879b) Siwalik fauna. In: Medlicott HB, Blanford WT (eds) A manual of the geology of India, Part II: Extra-Peninsular Area. Published by order of the Government of India, Calcutta, pp 572–591

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanford WT (1883) Geological notes on the hills in the neighbourhood of the Sind and Punjab frontier between Quetta and Dera Ghazi Khan. Memoirs of the geological survey of India, vol XX, Art 2, pp 1–240 (with three plates and a geological map in colors of 1 inch = 12 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bordet P, Latreille M (1955) La Géologie de L’Himalaya de l’Arun. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, Paris, vol 5, ser 6, pp 529–542

    Google Scholar 

  • Cande SC, Kent DV (1995) Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J Geophys Res 100:6093–6095

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cautley PT, Falconer H (1835) Synopsis of fossil genera and species from the upper deposits of the tertiary strata of the Siválik Hills, in the collection of the authors (Prinsep J ed). J Asiat Soc Bengal, Calcutta IV(48):706–707

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhri RS (1982) Petrology of the Siwalik Group of Nepal Himalaya. Recent Res Himalaya 8:424–466

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaudhri RS, Gill GTS (1981) Heavy mineral assemblage of the Siwalik Group of Nepal Himalaya. J Geol Soc India 22:220–226

    Google Scholar 

  • Colbert EH (1935) Siwalik mammals in the American museum of natural history. Transactions of the American philosophical society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, new series, vol XXVI, 401 pp (with maps)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corvinus G (1988) The Mio-Plio-Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphy of the Surai Khola Siwaliks in West Nepal: first results. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris 306(2):1471–1477

    Google Scholar 

  • Corvinus G (1993) The Siwalik group of sediments at Surai Khola in western Nepal and its palaeontological record. J Nepal Geol Soc 9:21–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Corvinus G, Nanda AC (1994) Stratigraphy and palaeontology of the Siwalik Group of the Surai Khola and Rato Khola in Nepal. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Stuttgart 191(1):25–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Corvinus G, Rimal LN (2001) Biostratigraphy and geology of the Neogene Siwalik Group of Surai Khola and Rato Khola areas in Nepal. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 165:251–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dhital MR, Gajurel AP, Pathak D, Paudel LP, Kizaki K (1995) Geology and structure of the Siwaliks and Lesser Himalaya in the Surai Khola–Bardanda area, mid western Nepal. Bull Dept Geol Tribhuvan Univ Kathmandu 4:1–70

    Google Scholar 

  • Falconer H (1832) Dehra Dún fossil remains (letter to the editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society). J Asiat Soc Bengal I(V):249

    Google Scholar 

  • Falconer H (1837) Note on the occurrence of fossil bones in the Sewalik Range, eastward of Hardwar. J Asiat Soc Bengal VI:233

    Google Scholar 

  • Falconer H (1868) Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis. In: Murchison C (ed) Palæontological Memoirs and notes of the Late Hugh Falconer, A.M., A.D., vol I, Robert Hardwicke, London, pp 1–556

    Google Scholar 

  • Falconer H, Cautley PT (1836) Sivatherium Giganteum, a new fossil ruminant genus, from the valley of the Markanda, in the Siválik branch of the Sub-Himaláyan Mountains (Prinsep J ed). J Asiat Soc Bengal, Calcutta V(49):38–50 (with 2 plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Fatmi AN (1973) Lithostratigraphic units of the Kohat-Potwar province, Indus Basin, Pakistan. Mem Geol Surv Pakistan 10:1–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Gansser A (1964a) Geology of the Himalayas. Interscience, New York, p 289

    Google Scholar 

  • Gansser A (1964b). The Alps and the Himalayas. In: International geological congress, report of the twenty-second session, India, part XI, proceedings of session 11: Himalayan and Alpine Orogeny, New Delhi, pp 387–419

    Google Scholar 

  • Gansser A (1983) Geology of the Bhutan Himalaya. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft (Mémoires de Société Helvétique de Sciences Naturelles, Band/Vol 96, 181 pp), (with 4 plates: a geological map in colors; scale: 1:2,000,000; cross-sections in colors and black, and a panorama of mountains)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gautam P (2008) Magnetic fabric of Siwalik sediments (Nepal): implications to time–space evolution of stress field. J Nepal Geol Soc 38:39–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Gautam P, Appel E (1994) Magnetic-polarity stratigraphy of Siwalik Group sediments of Tinau Khola section in west central Nepal, revisited. Geophys J Int 117:223–234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gautam P, Fujiwara Y (2000) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Siwalik Group sediments of Karnali River section in western Nepal. Geophys J Int 142:812–824

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gee ER (1989) Overview of the geology and structure of the Salt Range, with observations on related areas of northern Pakistan. In: Malinconico Jr LL, Lillie RJ (eds) Tectonics of the western Himalaya. Geological society of America, Special Publication No 232, pp 95–112 (with a geological map in colors, based on 1:50,000 sheets)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Gill WD (1952a) The stratigraphy of the Siwalik Series in the northern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Q J Geol Soc Lond, Part 4 CVII(4):375–394 (with Plates XX to XXII)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gill WD (1952b) The tectonics of the Sub-Himalayan fault zone in the northern Potwar region and in the Kangra district of the Punjab. Q J Geol Soc Lond, Part 4, CVII(428):395–413 (with Plates XXIII to XXV)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glennie KW, Ziegler MW (1964) The Siwalik formation in Nepal, 22nd international geological congress, 22nd session report, part 25, pp 82–95

    Google Scholar 

  • Gurung D (1998) Freshwater molluscs from the Late Neogene Siwalik Group, Surai Khola, western Nepal. J Nepal Geol Soc 17:7–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen T (1951) Preliminary note on the geological structure of Central Nepal. Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Luzern, pp 133–134

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen T (1959) Über den Geologischen Bau des Nepal-Himalaya mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Siwalik-Zone und der Talbildung. Jahrbuch der St. Gallischen Naturwissenchaftlichen Gesellschaft, vol 76, pp 3–48 (with 10 figures and 9 plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen T (1969) Report on the geological survey of Nepal. Volume 1: preliminary reconnaissance. Denkschiiften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Band LXXXVI/1, 185 pp (with a geological map)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen T (1994) Building bridges to the third world: memoirs of Nepal 1950–1992. Book Faith India, Delhi 386 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrison TM, Copeland P, Hall SA, Quade J, Burner S, Ojha TP, Kidd WSF (1993) Isotopic preservation of Himalayan/ Tibet uplift, denudation, and climatic histories of two molasse deposits. J Geol 100:157–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hisatomi K, Tanaka S (1994) Climatic and environmental changes at 9 and 7.5 Ma in the Churia (Siwalik) Group, west-central Nepal. Himal Geol 15:161–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoorn C, Ohja T, Quade J (2000) Palynological evidence for vegetation development and climatic change in the sub-Himalayan zone (Neogene, Central Nepal). Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 163:133–161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Itihara M, Shibasaki T, Miyamoto N (1972) Photogeological survey of the Siwalik Ranges and the Terai Plain, southeastern Nepal. J Geosci, Osaka City University, vol 15, Art 4, pp 77–98 (with a geological map of the Siwaliks and 4 plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson GD, Opdyke ND, Pilbeam DR, Tahirkheli RAK, Ibrahim Shah SM (1982a) Introduction (to special issue: the geochronology and biochronology of the Siwalik Group, Pakistan), compiled by Opdyke ND. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 37:vii–viii

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson NM, Opdyke ND, Johnson GD, Lindsay EH, Tahirkheli RAK (1982b) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and ages of Siwalik Group rocks of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 37:17–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson NM, Stix J, Tauxe L, Cerveny PF, Tahirkheli RAK (1985) Paleomagnetic chronology, fluvial processes, and tectonic implications of the Siwalik deposits near Chinji village, Pakistan. J Geol 93:27–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krishnan MS (1956) Geology of India and Burma, 3rd edn. Higginbothams, Madras, p 555 (with a geological map in colors; scale: 1 inch = 96 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Krynine PD (1937) Petrography and genesis of the Siwalik Series. Am J Sci Ser 5 34:422–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le Fort P (1975) Himalayas, the collided range: present knowledge of the continental arc. Am J Sci 275-A:1–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis GE (1933a) Notice of the discovery of Plesiogulo brachygnathus in the Siwalik Measures of India. Am J Sci Fifth Ser xxvi:80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis GE (1933b) Preliminary notice of a new genus of Lemuroid from the Siwaliks. Am J Sci Fifth Ser xxvi:134–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lombard A (1958) Un itinéraire géologique dans l’Est du Népal (Massif du Mont Everest). Mémoires Société Helvétique Sciences Naturelles 82:1–107

    Google Scholar 

  • Lydekker R (1883) Synopsis of the Siwalik vertebrata of India. Records of the geological survey of India, vol XVI, part 2, pp 61–94

    Google Scholar 

  • McMahon CA (1883) On the microscopic structure of some sub-Himalayan rocks of tertiary age. Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol XVI, pp 186–192

    Google Scholar 

  • Medlicott HB (1864) On the geological structure and relations of the southern portion of the Himalayan range between the rivers Ganges and Ravee. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol III, Art 4, pp 1–206 (with a geological map in colors; scale: 1 inch = 8 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Medlicott HB (1875) Note of the geology of Nepal. Records of the geological survey of India, vol VIII, Part 4, pp 93–101 (with a geological map on 1 inch = 6 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Medlicott HB (1879) Sub-Himalayas. In: Medlicott HB, Blanford WT (eds) A manual of the geology of india, part II: Extra-Peninsular Area. Published by order of the Government of India, Calcutta, pp 517–571

    Google Scholar 

  • Medlicott HB, Blanford WT (1879) A manual of the geology of India, part ii: Extra-Peninsular Area. Published by order of the Government of India, Calcutta, pp 445–817 (with 21 plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Middlemiss CS (1890) Physical geology of the Sub-Himalaya of Garhwál and Kumaun. Memoirs of the geological survey of India, vol XXIV, Part 2, pp 59–200 (with 3 plates of cross-sections and a plate of geological map in colors; scale 1 inch = 4 miles)

    Google Scholar 

  • Munthe J, Dongol B, Hutchison JH, Kean WF, Munthe K, West RM (1983) New fossil discoveries from the Miocene of Nepal include a Hominoid. Nature 303(5915):331–333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murchison C (ed) (1868) Palæontological Memoirs and notes of the Late Hugh Falconer, A.M., A.D., vol I: Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis, Robert Hardwicke, London, 590 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakata T (1972) Geomorphic history and crustal movements of the foot-hills of the Himalayas. Sci Rep Tohoku Univ 7th Ser (Geography) 22(1):39–177

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakayama K, Ulak PD (1999) Evolution of fluvial style in the Siwalik Group in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya. Sed Geol 125:205–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nanda AC, Sehgal RK (2005) Recent advances in palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic aspects of the Siwalik Group of Northwestern Himalaya. Himalayan Geology, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun, vol 26, no 1, pp 93–102

    Google Scholar 

  • Ojha TP, Butler RF, Quade J, DeCelles PG, Richards D, Upreti BN (2000) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group at Khutia Khola, far-western Nepal. Bull Geol Soc Am 112:424–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Opdyke ND, Johnson NM, Johnson GD, Lindsay EH, Tahirkheli RAK (1982) Paleomagnetism of the Middle Siwalik formations of Northern Pakistan and rotation of the Salt Range decollement. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 37:1–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Opdyke ND, Lindsay E, Johnson GD, Johnson NM, Tahirkheli RAK, Mirza MA (1979) Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of the Upper Siwalik Subgroup of Northern Pakistan. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 27:1–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pascoe EH (1964) A manual of the geology of India and Burma, Volume III, Published by order of the Government of India, Published by the Manager of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi, pp 1345–2130 (with maps)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilgrim GE (1908) The tertiary and post-tertiary freshwater deposits of Baluchistan and Sind with notices of new vertebrates. Records of the geological survey of India, vol XXXVII, part 2, pp 139–166 (with Plates 2, 3, and 4)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilgrim GE (1910) Preliminary note on a revised classification of the tertiary freshwater deposits of India. Records of the geological survey of India, vol XL, Part 3, pp 185–205

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilgrim GE (1913) The correlation of the Siwaliks with mammal horizons of Europe. Records of the geological survey of India, vol XLIII, Part 4, pp 264–326 (with 3 plates including a geological map in colors, scale: 1 inch = 1 mile, and cross-sections)

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilgrim GE (1925) The migrations of Indian mammals, presidential address, section of geology, proceedings of twelfth Indian science congress, pp 200–218

    Google Scholar 

  • Pilgrim GE (1932) The fossil carnivore of India, Memoirs of the geological survey of India, Palæontologia Indica, vol XVIII, 232 pp (with Plates I to X)

    Google Scholar 

  • Prasad M (1995) Siwalik flora from Koilabas area in the Nepal Himalaya and its significance on palaeoenvironment and phytogeography. J Nepal Geol Soc 11:203–216 (Special issue)

    Google Scholar 

  • Prasad KN (2001) An introduction to the mammalian fauna of the Siwalik System. Prasad Publications, Chennai 295 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Raiverman V (2002) Foreland sedimentation in Himalayan tectonic regime: a relook at the orogenic process, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (Publishers), Dehra Dun, India, 378 pp (with maps)

    Google Scholar 

  • Raiverman V (2007) Geothermic revolution, mountain elevation, tectonic pulsation and foreland sedimentation in the Himalayan System. Himalayan geology, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun, India, vol 28, no 2, pp 33–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Raju ATR (1967) Observations on the petrography of tertiary clastic sediments of the Himalayan foothills of north India. Bull Oil Nat Gas Comm 4(1):5–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Rösler W, Metzler W, Appel E (1997) Neogene magnetic polarity stratigraphy of some fluviatile Siwalik sections, Nepal. Geophys J Int 130:89–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schumm SA (1977) The fluvial system. Wiley, New York 338 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma CK (1973) Geology of Nepal. Mani Ram Sharma, Educational Enterprises, Kathmandu 184 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinha S, Kumar R, Ghosh SK, Sangode SJ (2007) Controls on expansion-contraction of late Cenozoic alluvial architecture: a case study from the Himalayan foreland basin, NW Himalaya, India. Himalayan Geology, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun, vol 28, no 1, pp 1–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Strachey R (1851) On the geology of part of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet. Q J Geol Soc Lond 7:292–310 (with a geological map and two cross-sections in colors)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takayasu K (1988) Freshwater molluscs in the Churia (Siwalik) Group and Himalayan upheaval. In: Kizaki K (ed) Himalayan upheaval, Tsukiji Shokan, pp 82–92 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tokuoka T, Takayasu K, Hisatomi K, Yamasaki H, Tanaka S, Konomatsu M, Sah RB, Rai SM (1990) Stratigraphy and geologic structures of the Churia (Siwalik) Group in the Tinau Khola–Binai Khola area, west central Nepal. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Shimane University, vol 24, pp 71–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Tokuoka T, Takayasu K, Yoshida M, Hisatomi K (1986) The Churia (Siwalik) Group of the Arung Khola area, west central Nepal. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Shimane University, Japan, vol 20, pp 135–210 (with a geological map in colors)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ulak PD (2002) Palaeohydrology of the Siwalik Group along the Bakiya Khola section, Central Nepal Himalaya. J Nepal Geol Soc 26:49–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Ulak PD, Nakayama K (1998) Lithostratigraphy and evolution of the fluvial style in the Siwalik Group in the Hetauda–Bakiya Khola area, Central Nepal. Bulletin of Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, vol 6, pp 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaidyanadhan R, Ramakrishnan M (2008) Geology of India, Volume 2, published by the Geological Society of India, Bangalore, pp 557–994 (with maps and plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadia DN (1926) Geology of India (for students), Revised edn. Macmillan and Co. Limited, London 400 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadia DN (1976) Geology of India, 4th edn. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi, 508 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • West RM, Hutchison J, Munthe J (1991) Miocene vertebrates from the Siwalik Group, Western Nepal. J Vertebr Paleontol 11(1):108–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • West RM, Lukacs JR, Munthe J Jr, Hussain ST (1978) Vertebrate fauna from Neogene Siwalik Group, Dang Valley, Western Nepal. J Paleontol 52(5):1015–1022

    Google Scholar 

  • West RM, Munthe J (1981) Neogene vertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy of Nepal. J Nepal Geol Soc 1(1):1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Wynne AB (1877) Note on the tertiary zone and underlying rocks in the north-west Punjáb. Records of the geological survey of India, vol X, Pt 3, pp 107–132 (with a geological map in colors on a scale of 8 miles = 1 inch)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wynne AB (1878) On the geology of Salt Range in the Punjáb. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol XIV, Art 1, pp 1–313 (with 2 geological maps in colors on the scale of 4 miles = 1 inch, and 31 plates)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wynne AB (1880) On the trans-indus extension of the Punjab Salt Range. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, vol XVII, Art 2, pp 211–305 (with six plates and three colored geological maps, main map is 1 inch = 4 miles)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Megh Raj Dhital .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Dhital, M.R. (2015). Introduction to Siwaliks. In: Geology of the Nepal Himalaya. Regional Geology Reviews. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02496-7_27

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics