Psychological Aspects of Human Dynamics in Underground Evacuation: Field Experiments

Conference paper

Abstract

The relevance of individual and social human factors in evacuation generally has been accepted, but only few studies aim at determining their specific influence on evacuation behavior. Data come from accident analysis, laboratory experiments, and field studies. A series of studies including passenger counts, passenger interviews and field experiments is reported. Data show that many passengers would need help in an evacuation, that passengers lack knowledge about evacuation signs and behavior, and that they expect their own behavior to be non-compliant with some evacuation orders. Field experiments show instances of helping participants with simulated impairments, and of altruistic as well as egoistic behavior. Results concerning group behavior include staying together and even building “human lumps”.

Keywords

Field experiments Human factors Passenger evacuation Social behavior Subway station Underground transportation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (program “Research for civil protection”, project: OrGaMIRPLUS, project number: 13N11525). The studies were conducted in cooperation with Prof. Andreas Pflitsch from Ruhr-University Bochum and his students.

References

  1. 1.
    Carlson, L.A., Hölscher, C., Shipley T.F. and Conroy-Dalton, R C (2010). Getting lost in buildings. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 284–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kang, K., Han, K. & Kim, J. (2010). A Study on Passenger Level Change Mode Choice in a Public Transport Transfer System: -Gwangmyeong station case-. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.8, 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cocking, C., Drury, J. & Reicher, S. (2009). The psychology of crowd behaviour in emergency evacuations: Results from two interview studies and implications for the Fire and Rescue Services. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 30 (1–4), 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conroy-Dalton, R. (2005). Space syntax and spatial cognition. World Architecture: Space Syn-tax Monograph 11(185), 41–45.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drury, J., Cocking, C. & Reicher, S. (2009). Everyone for themselves? A comparative study of crowd solidarity among emergency survivors. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48 (3), 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drury, J., Cocking, C., Reicher, S., Burton, A., Schofield, D., Hardwick, A., Graham, D., & Langston, P. (2009). Co-operation versus competition in a mass emergency evacuation: A new laboratory simulation and a new theoretical model. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 957–970.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dynes, R.R. (2006). Panic and the vision of collective incompetence. Natural hazard observer, Vol. XXXI (2).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fahy, R. F. & Proulx, G. (2009). ‘Panic’ and human behaviour in fire. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, Robinson College, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Forell, B. (2004). Bewertung der Anforderungen der Musterversammlungsstättenverordnung (Mai 2002) hinsichtlich realistischer Evakuierungsszenarien in Diskotheken und ähnlichen Vergnügungsstätten. Braunschweig: TU Braunschweig.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frantzich, H., & Nilsson, D. (2004). Evacuation Experiments in a Smoke Filled Tunnel. Paper presented at the third International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, Belfast, UK.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fridolf, K. (2010). Fire evacuation in underground transportation systems: a review of acci-dents and empirical research. Report 3151. Lund: Lunds universitet.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Helbing, D., Farkas, I., & Vicsek, T., Freezing by heating in a driven mesoscopic system, Physical Review Letters 84, 1240–1243 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Helbing, D., Molnár, P., Farkas, I. J. & Bolay, K. (2001). Self-organizing pedestrian movement. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 28, 361–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karwowski, W. (2012). The discipline of human factors and ergonomics. In Salvendy, G. Hand-book of human factors and ergonomics (4th ed.) (3–37). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moussaïd, M., Helbing, D. & Theraulaz, G. (2011) How simple rules determine pedestrian behavior and crowd disasters. PNAS 108 (17) 6884–6888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nilsson, D. (2010) METRO - A research project about fires and explosions in metro systems (underground). Presentation at the International Rail Accident Investigation Conference, 25 November 2010.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nilsson, D. (2009). Exit Choice in Fire Emergencies - Influencing Choice of Exit With Flashing Lights. Lund University, Lund.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Norén, A., & Winér, J. (2003). Modelling Crowd Evacuation from Road and Train Tunnels – Data and design for faster evacuations (No. 5127). Lund: Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Lund University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oswald, M., Lebeda, C., Schneider, U., & Kirchberger, H. (2005). Full-Scale Evacuation. Experiments in a smoke filled Rail Carriage - a detailed study of passenger behaviour under reduced visibility. Paper presented at the third International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, Vienna, Italy.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Predtetschenski, W. M. & Milinski, A. I. (1971). Personenströme in Gebäuden - Berechnungsmethoden für die Projektierung. Köln-Braunsfeld: Verlagsgesellschaft Rudolf Müller.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Quarantelli, E. (2008). The Nature and Conditions of Panic. In A. Boin (Hrsg.), Crisis Management (Vol. 2, S. 309–319). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sanders, M. S. & McCormick, E. J. (1993). Human Factors in Engineering and Design (7th ed.). New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schadschneider, A., Klingsch, W., Klüpfel, H., Kretz, T., Rogsch, C. & Seyfried, A. (2009). Evacuation dynamics: Empirical results, modeling and applications. In B. Meyers (editor.), Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science (S. 517–550). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schneider, U. & Kirchberger, H. (2007). Evakuierungsberechnungen bei Brandereignissen mittel Ingenieurmethoden. Brandschutz, 62–76.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schreckenberg, M. (2010). Dynamik von Menschenmassen, AKNZ Seminar, 22.06.2010. Deutsche Hochschule der Polizei, Brühl.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sime, J. D. (1995). Crowd psychology and engineering. Safety Science, 21(1), 1–14.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tubbs, J. S. & Meacham, B. J. (2007). Egress design solutions: A guide to evacuation and crowd management planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Intercultural Business CommunicationFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations