Validation of Crowd Models Including Social Groups

  • Gerta Köster
  • Franz Treml
  • Michael Seitz
  • Wolfram Klein
Conference paper


The development of group models within models of pedestrian motion has recently become a new focus of research. This interest was triggered by insight from the social sciences: Small groups often dominate the crowd at large events and the need to associate with family and friends may dominate over flight instincts. It is therefore desirable that crowd simulators adopt the new group models to better mitigate risks for example at large events or at public infrastructures. However, to make this feasible reliable validation tests must be made available. Developers and users alike should be able to check whether the adopted model indeed captures the essential characteristics of a crowd composed of subgroups. As a desirable side effect, common validation tests would make simulation tools easier to compare and their range of application easier to assess. This can help to ensure a minimum quality standard and thus to further mitigate risks. In this paper we suggest basic visual tests and some quantitative test were data is available.


Validation Verification Modeling Simulation Crowd Pedestrian stream Groups Social group Cellular automaton 



This work was partially funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research through the priority program Schutz und Rettung von Menschen (Protection and Rescue of People) within the projects REPKA (Regional Evacuation: Planning, Control and Adaptation) and MEPKA (Investigation of Mathematical Properties of Pedestrian Stream Models).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerta Köster
    • 1
  • Franz Treml
    • 1
  • Michael Seitz
    • 1
  • Wolfram Klein
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Applied SciencesMunichGermany
  2. 2.Siemens AG Corporate TechnologyMunichGermany

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