An Experimental Study on the Correlation Between “Attachment to Belongings” “Pre-movement” Time

  • Marco D’Orazio
  • Gabriele Bernardini
Conference paper


Many studies show that people carry out activities not directly connected with the evacuation after hearing a fire alarm. In this study we analyze the behavior of two groups of students in a Faculty of Engineering, following the activation of a fire alarm. The study shows that in these types of buildings, due to the fact that students are involved in activities with electronic devices, “pre-movement times” are very high and are strongly influenced by users’ attachment to their belongings. In particular this study allows the distribution of pre-movement time and the speed of people during the evacuation to be calculated.


Evacuation Fire safety Pre-movement time Movement-time Public buildings 


  1. 1.
    Canter, D., 1980. Fires and human behaviour. J. Wiley. ISBN 9780471277095.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sime, J. D., 1995. Crowd psychology and engineering. Safety Science, 21(1):1–14. ISSN 0925-7535. doi:DOI:  10.1016/0925-7535(96)81011-3.
  3. 3.
    Guylene and Proulx, 1993. A stress model for people facing a fire. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(2):137–147. ISSN 0272-4944. doi: 10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80146-X.
  4. 4.
    Proulx, G., 2002. Movement of People: The Evacuation Timing, in SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering. 3. National Fire Protection Association.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guanquan, C. and Jinhua, S., 2006. The eect of pre-movement time and occupant density on evacuation time. Journal of Fire Sciences, 24(3):237–259. doi: 10.1177/0734904106058249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kobes, M., Helsloot, I., de Vries, B., and Post, J. G., 2010. Building safety and human behaviour in fire: A literature review. Fire Safety Journal, 45(1):1–11. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.resaf.2009.08.005.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Helbing, T. V., I Farkas, 2000. Simulating dynamical features of escape panics. Nature, (407):487.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Helbing, T. V., I Farkas, 2009. Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Phys.Rev., E(51):42–82. 10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lizhong, Y., Weifeng, F., and Weicheng, F., 2003. Modeling occupant evacuation using cellular automata - effect of human behavior and building characteristics on evacuation. Journal of Fire Sciences, 21(3):227–240. doi:  10.1177/0734904103021003004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zheng, X., Zhong, T., and Liu, M., 2009. Modeling crowd evacuation of a building based on seven methodological approaches. Building and Environment, 44(3):437–445. ISSN 0360-1323. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.04.002.
  11. 11.
    Ko, S., Spearpoint, M., and Teo, A., 2007. Trial evacuation of an industrial premises and evacuation model comparison. Fire Safety Journal, 42(2):91–105. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.resaf.2006.07.001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shen, T.-S., 2006. Building egress analysis. Journal of Fire Sciences, 24(1):7–25. doi: 10.1177/0734904106052549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nilsson, D. and Frantzich, H., 2010. Design of voice alarms.the benefit of mentioning fire and the use of a synthetic voice. In S.-V. B. Heidelberg, editor, Pedestrian and evacuation dynamics 2008. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04504-2 10.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Purser, D. A. and Bensilum, M., 2001. Quantification of behaviour for engineering design standards and escape time calculations. Safety Science, 38(2):157–182. ISSN 0925-7535. doi:DOI:  10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00066-7.
  15. 15.
    McConnell, N., Boyce, K., Shields, J., Galea, E., Day, R., and Hulse, L., 2010. The uk 9/11 evacuation study: Analysis of survivors’ recognition and response phase in wtc1. Fire Safety Journal, 45(1):21–34. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.09.001.11
  16. 16.
    Kuligowski, E. D. and Mileti, D. S., 2009. Modeling pre-evacuation delay by occupants in world trade center towers 1 and 2 on September 11, 2001. Fire Safety Journal, 44(4):487–496. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.10.001.
  17. 17.
    Oven, V. and Cakici, N., 2009. Modelling the evacuation of a high-rise office building in Istanbul. Fire Safety Journal, 44(1):1–15. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.02.005.
  18. 18.
    Shields, T. J. and Boyce, K. E., 2000. A study of evacuation from large retail stores. Fire Safety Journal, 35(1):25–49. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI:  10.1016/S0379-7112(00)00013-8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kobes, M., Helsloot, I., de Vries, B., and Post, J., 2010. Exit choice, (pre-) movement time and (pre-)evacuation behaviour in hotel fire evacuation - behavioural analysis and validation of the use of serious gaming in experimental research. Procedia Engineering, 3:37–51. ISSN 1877-7058. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2010.07.006. 1st Conference on Evacuation Modeling and Management.
  20. 20.
    Nilsson, D. and Johansson, A., 2009. Social influence during the initial phase of a fire evacuation - analysis of evacuation experiments in a cinema theatre. Fire Safety Journal, 44(1):71–79. ISSN 0379-7112. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.03.008.
  21. 21.
    Sime, J., 1988. Safety in the built environment. E. & F.N. Spon. ISBN 9780419144809.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu, S., Yang, L., Fang, T., and Li, J., 2009. Evacuation from a classroom considering the occupant density around exits. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 388(9):1921–1928. ISSN 0378-4371. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2009.01.008.12 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang, J., Song, W., and Xu, X., 2008. Experiment and multi-grid modeling of evacuation from a classroom. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 387(23):5901–5909. ISSN 0378-4371. doi:DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2008.06.030.
  24. 24.
    Guylene and Proulx, 1995. Evacuation time and movement in apartment buildings. Fire Safety Journal, 24(3):229–246. ISSN 0379-7112. doi: 10.1016/0379-7112(95)00023-M.
  25. 25.
    Liu, M. and Lo, S., 2011. The quantitative investigation on people’s preevacuation behavior under fire. Automation in Construction, In Press, Corrected Proof:-. ISSN 0926-5805. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.autcon.2010.12.004.
  26. 26.
    Augustijn-Beckers, E.-W., Flacke, J., and Retsios, B., 2010. Investigating the effect of different pre-evacuation behavior and exit choice strategies using agent-based modeling. Procedia Engineering, 3:23–35. ISSN 1877-7058. doi:DOI:  10.1016/j.proeng.2010.07.005. 1st Conference on Evacuation Modeling and Management.
  27. 27.
    Fahy R.F., P. G., 2001. Toward creating a database on delay times to start evacuation and walking speeds for use in evacuation modeling. In 2nd International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, pages 175–183.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kady, R. A. and Davis, J., 2009. The impact of exit route designs on evacuation time for crawling occupants. Journal of Fire Sciences, 27(5):481–493.doi: 10.1177/0734904109105320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DICEA DepartmentUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaITALY

Personalised recommendations