Main Operating Regimes of Fiber Lasers

  • Valerii (Vartan) Ter-MikirtychevEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 181)


As solid-state lasers, fiber lasers demonstrate the same types of operating regimes. However, the physical processes that take place in gain media (the fiber core) create challenges that are unique to fiber lasers, mainly because of their small cross-section dimensions compared with other active media (typical core diameter of diffraction-limited fiber lasers: 6–30 μm) and the very long length of gain material (typically in the multimeter scale). In comparison, semiconductor lasers also have gain material with very small cross-sectional dimensions, but the gain material length is on the submillimeter scale. In addition, because of the rare-earth nature of fiber lasers’ active ions, energy storage in fiber laser systems is high. In addition to possibility of high energy/peak power pulse production by fiber lasers, these characteristics create challenges in nonlinear processes and damage processes, which have to be addressed during fiber laser design and development.


Fiber Laser Longitudinal Mode Laser Cavity High Peak Power Laser Resonator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    R.W. Hellwarth, Control of fluorescent pulsations, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, ed. by J.R. Singer (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), pp. 334–341Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.G. Wagner, B.A. Lengyel, Evaluation of the giant pulse in a laser. J. Appl. Phys. 34(7), 2040–2046 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th edn. (Springer, Berlin, 1999), p. 746CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.V. Smith, B.T. Do, Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm. Appl. Opt. 47(26), 418–4832 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T.V. Pistor, L.L. Chase, Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A: 18, 2607–2616 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z.J. Chen, A.B. Grudinin, J. Porta, J.D. Minelly, Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers. Opt. Lett. 23, 454–456 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.M. Ratner, Spectral, Spatial, and Temporal Properties of Lasers (Plenum Press, New York, 1972), pp. 1–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.J. Kuizenga, A.E. Siegman, FM and AM mode locking of the homogeneous laser—Part I: Theory. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6(11), 694–708 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science books, USA, 1986), p. 1283Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Statz, G.A. deMars, Quantum Electronics, ed. by C.H. Townes (Columbia University Press, New York, 1960), p. 530Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th edn. (Plenum Press, New York, 1998), p. 605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.H. Gill, B.E. Newnam, Picosecond-pulse damage studies of diffraction gratings, in Damage in Laser Materials, vol. 727, ed. by H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, D. Milam, B.E. Newnam (National Bureau of Standards Special Publication, USA, 1986), pp. 154–161Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1997), p. 485Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.A. Huguley, J.S. Loomis, Optical material damage from 10.6 µm CW radiation, in Damage in Laser Materials, vol. 435, ed. by A.J. Glass, A.H. Guenther (National Bureau of Standards Special Publication, USA, 1975)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.C. Hanna, R.M. Percival, I.R. Perry, R.G. Smart, P.J. Suni, A.C. Tropper, An Ytterbium-doped monomode fibre laser: broadly tunable operation from 1.010 μm to 1.162 μm and three level operation at 974 nm. J. Mod. Opt. 37(4), 517–525 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    I.J. Hodgkinson, J.I. Vukusic, Birefringent filters for tuning flashlamp-pumped dye lasers: simplified theory and design (T). Appl. Opt. 17, 1944–1948 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.C. Hanna, R.M. Percival, R.G. Smart, A.C. Tropper, Efficient and tunable operation of a \( Tm^{3 + } \)-doped fibre laser. Opt. Commun. 75, 283–286 (1989)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Erdogan, Fiber grating spectra. J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1227–1294 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Othonos, K. Kalli, FBG: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Boston, 1999). Chapter 5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    V.C. Lauridsen et al., Design of DFB fiber lasers, in Proceedings of ECOC, vol. 3, (Edinburgh, UK, 1997), pp. 39–42Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Ibsen et al., Robust high power (> 20 mW) all-fiber DFB lasers with unidirectional and truly single polarization outputs, Conference Proceedings, CLEO’ 99, (Wasgington DC, OSA, 1999), pp. 245–246Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.L. Schawlow, C.H. Townes, Infrared and optical masers. Phys. Rev. 112, 1940–1949 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N.Y. Voo, P. Horak, M. Ibsen, W.H. Loh, Linewidth and phase noise characteristics of DFB fibre lasers, in Proceedings SPIE, vol. 5620, 2004, Solid State Laser Technologies and Femtosecond Phenomena, eds. by Jonathan A. C. Terry; W. Andrew Clarkson, pp. 179–186Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    NP Photonics, Scorpion’ Laser Module, Product Data Sheet Rev 4. Available at:
  25. 25.
    W.H. Loh, S.D. Butterworth, W.A. Clarkson, Efficient distributed feedback erbium-doped germanosilicate fiber laser pumped in the 520 nm band. Electron. Lett. 32, 2088–2089 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Gan, W.H. Xiang, G.Z. Zhang, Studies on ytterbium-doped fibre laser operating in different regime. J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 48, 795–799 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mountain ViewUSA

Personalised recommendations