A Novel Method for Monitoring Structural Metallic Materials Using Microwave NDT

  • B. M. Abdullah
  • J. Cullen
  • A. Mason
  • A. I. Al-Shamma’a
Part of the Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation book series (SSMI, volume 7)


This book chapter describes a preliminary study carried out using EM wave technology within the microwave region to detect defects in metallic materials, such as materials used in building structures and vehicle platforms. The measurement system used in this research study makes use of the low power microwave energy over the frequency range of 300 MHz and 6 GHz. Main metallic defects such as cracking and corrosion in metal sheets are studied extensively in this research study. However, the system can also be used to detect other defects such as weld bead defects. The proposed EM wave NDT (Non-Destructive Testing) system will be integrated into a wide variety of structural elements (e.g. automotive and construction) and will provide continuous real-time structural health monitoring of the materials. The system will be able to provide information related to the presence, type and location of damage or defects. Two sensors are presented here for defect detection and monitoring; a rectangular patch structure and an interdigitated electrode structure. Experimental results demonstrate that the presence of defects such as cracks near the surface of the sensor elicit a change in sensor response.


Microwave NDT Corrosion Cracking Structural monitoring Patch sensor Interdigitated electrode (IDE) sensor Microwave sensor Metallic defects 


  1. 1.
    BDM Federal, Inc. corrosion detection technologies, sector study, final report, prepared for North American Technology and Industrial Base Organization (NATIBO), March (1998) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Brudar, How to distinguish surface and subsurface cracks using electromagnetic ndt methods. NDT Int. 17, 221–223 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.H. Gysel, L. Feinstein, Design and Fabrication of Stripline Microwave Surface-Crack Detector for Projectiles (Stanford Research Institute, California, 1974)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Kerouedan, P. Quéffélec, P. Talbot, C. Quendo, S. De Blasi, A. Le Brun, Detection of micro-cracks on metal surfaces using near-field microwave dual-behavior resonator filters. Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 105701 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Jongwoo, K. Jungmin, L. Jinyi, P. Youngmin A hand held magnetic camera system for real time crack inspection, in Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 298–301Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Günter Schmitt, Michael Schütze, George F. Hays, Wayne Burns, En-Hou Han, Antoine Pourbaix, Gretchen Jacobson, World corrosion organization global needs for knowledge dissemination, research, and development in materials deterioration and corrosion control, May (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. H. Goh, A. Mason, A. I. Al-Shamma’a, S. R. Wylie, M. Field, P. Browning, Lactate detection using a microwave cavity sensor for biomedical applications, in Sensing Technology (ICST), 2011 Fifth International Conference on, 2011, pp. 436–441Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.C. Mukhopadhyay, C.P. Gooneratne, A novel planar-type biosensor for noninvasive meat inspection. Sens. J. IEEE 7, 1340–1346 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Zoughi, S. Ganchev, Microwave nondestructive evaluation, State of the art review, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523 February (1995) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Feinstein, R. J. Hruby, Surface Crack Detection by Microwave Methods, in 6th Symposium on Nondestructive Evaluation of Aerospace and Weapons Systems Components and Materials, San Antonio, Texas, 1967Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. J. Bahr, Microwave Eddy-Current Techniques for Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 311–331, 1981Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Zoughi, C. Huber, N. Qaddoumi, E. Ranu, V. Otashevich, R. Mirshahi, S. Ganchev, T. Johnson, Real-time and on-line near-field microwave inspection of surface defects in rolled steel, in Microwave Conference Proceedings, 1997. APMC ‘97, 1997 Asia-Pacific, vol. 3, 1997, pp. 1081–1084Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Huber, H. Abiri, S.I. Ganchev, R. Zoughi, Modeling of surface hairline-crack detection in metals under coatings using an open-ended rectangular waveguide. Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. 45, 2049–2057 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Qaddoumi, S. Ganchev, R. Zoughi, A novel microwave fatigue crack detection technique using an open-ended coaxial line, in Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 1994. Digestivas, 1994 Conference on, 1994, pp. 59–60Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Kharkovsky, M.T. Ghasr, R. Zoughi, Near-field millimeter-wave imaging of exposed and covered fatigue cracks. Instrum. Measur. IEEE Trans. 58, 2367–2370 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Kharkovsky, A. McClanahan, R. Zoughi, D.D. Palmer, Microwave dielectric-loaded rectangular waveguide resonator for depth evaluation of shallow flaws in metals. Instrum. Measur. IEEE Trans. 60, 3923–3930 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. McClanahan, S. Kharkovsky, A.R. Maxon, R. Zoughi, D.D. Palmer, Depth evaluation of shallow surface cracks in metals using rectangular waveguides at millimeter-wave frequencies. Instrum. Measur. IEEE Trans. 59, 1693–1704 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Mazlumi, S.H.H. Sadeghi, R. Moini, Analysis technique for interaction of rectangular open-ended waveguides with surface cracks of arbitrary shape in metals. NDT E Int. 36, 331–338 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Ponchak, D. Akinwande, R. Ciocan, S. R. LeClair, M. Tabib-Azar, Evanescent microwave probes using coplanar waveguide and stripline for super-resolution imaging of materials, in Microwave Symposium Digest, 1999 IEEE MTT-S International, vol. 4, 1999, pp. 1859–1862Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.T. Ghasr, S. Kharkovsky, R. Zoughi, R. Austin, Comparison of near-field millimeter-wave probes for detecting corrosion precursor pitting under paint. Instrum. Measur. IEEE Trans. 54, 1497–1504 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Qaddoumi, M. A. Khousa, W. Saleh, Near-field microwave imaging utilizing tapered rectangular waveguides, in Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2004. IMTC 04. Proceedings of the 21st IEEE, vol. 1, 2004, pp. 174–177 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. M. Abdullah, Monitoring of Welding Using Laser Diodes, in Semiconductor Laser Diode Technology and Applications ed, 2012, p. 22Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. M. Abdullah, J. S. Smith, W. Lucas, J. Lucas, F. Malek, Monitoring of TIG welding using laser and diode illumination sources: a comparison study, in Electronic Design, 2008. ICED 2008. International Conference on, 2008, pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. J. Callus, Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure for Australian Defence Force Aircraft, 2007Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Hirao, H. Ogi, Electromagnetic acoustic resonance and materials characterization. Ultrasonics 35, 413–421 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Kalyanasundaram, B. Raj, T. Jayakumar, Characterization of microstructures in metallic materials using static and dynamic acoustic signal processing techniques, in Advances in Signal Processing for Non Destructive Evaluation of Materials, Quebec City, Canada, 2006Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Murayama, K. Fujisawa, M. Hirao, H. Fukuoka, Non-destructive evaluation of formability of zinc-coated steel sheets using electromagnetic acoustic transducer. NDT E Int. 30, 377–382 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Tuli, R. Mulaveesala, NDE for metals, composites and semiconductors by frequency modulated thermography, in Indian Society for NDE, Hyderabad, India, 2006Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    U. Qidwai M. Maqbool, Image deconvolution for enhancing IR images in order to detect defects in metallic plates, in Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT), 2009 IEEE International Symposium on, 2009, pp. 230–235Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. M. Abdullah
    • 1
  • J. Cullen
    • 1
  • A. Mason
    • 1
  • A. I. Al-Shamma’a
    • 1
  1. 1.Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research InstituteLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations