A Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Model

  • Soufiane Boulehouache
  • Remdane Maamri
  • Zaidi Sahnoun
  • Alla Larguet
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 513)


Pedagogical Agent (PA) is a tendency in human learning systems (HLS). However, the used Agent models are unable to decrease the complexity/performance ratio introduced by the modeling and the manipulation of multi-knowledge domains (Domain Model, Student Model, Pedagogical Model, etc). Thus, within this paper, we propose a Component based Pedagogical Agent Model that we claim makes effective and flexible the Pedagogical Agents building and maintaining. The PA building is simplified to an assembling of a set of pre-built sub-components that is directed by the PA ADL Fractal Abstract Description. Also, maintaining a sub set of sub-components means disconnecting them, removing them and replacing them by other versions those integrate the new required functionalities and/or tuning. Therefore, the building and the maintaining efficiency and flexibility are achieved by the separation of the abstract description of the PA from its fulfilling.


Pedagogical Agent Component-Based Agents the Fractal model the ADL Fractal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Grondin, G., Bouraqadi, N., Vercouter, L.: MaDcAr: An Abstract Model for Dynamic and Automatic (Re-)Assembling of Component-Based Applications. In: Gorton, I., Heineman, G.T., Crnković, I., Schmidt, H.W., Stafford, J.A., Ren, X.-M., Wallnau, K. (eds.) CBSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4063, pp. 360–367. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ketfi, N.B., Cunin, P.Y.: Adapting Applications on the Fly. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2002), p. 313. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Szyperski: Component Software - Beyond Object-Oriented Programming. Addison-Wesley/ACM Press (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    George, B., Fleurquin, R., Sadou, S., Sahraoui, H.A.: Un mécanisme de sélection de composants logiciels. L’OBJET 14(1-2), 139–163 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lau, K.-K., Wang, Z.: Software component models. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 33(10), 709–724 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bruneton, T.C., Leclecq, M., Quema, V., Stefani, J.-B.: The Fractal component model and its support in Java. Software, Practice and Experience 36(11-12), 1257–1284 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Devedzic, V., Harrer, A.: Software patterns in its architectures. I. J. Artificial Intelligence in Education 15(2), 63–94 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Briot, J.-P., Meurisse, T., Peschanski, F.: Architectural design of component-based agents: A behavior-based approach. In: Bordini, R.H., Dastani, M., Dix, J., El Fallah Seghrouchni, A. (eds.) PROMAS 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4411, pp. 71–90. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Devedžić, V., Jerinić, L., Radović, D.: Communication Between the Knowledge Base and Other Modules of the Intelligent Tutoring Shell in GET-BITS Model. In: Martin-Rubio, F., Triguero-Ruiz, F. (eds.) Actas de las Segundas Jornadas de Transferencia Tecnologica de Inteligencija Artificial TTIA 1997 (Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Transfer Technology on Artificial Intelligence TTIA 1997), November 12-14, AEPIA Press, Malaga (1997); addenda A-1 – A-11. (R54) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mullier, D., Dixon, M.: Authoring educational hypermedia using a semantic network. In: World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, vol. 2000(1), pp. 295–300 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McArthur, D., Lewis, M., Bishay, M.: The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Progress and Future Prospects. RAND 1700 Main St. Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis Johnson, W., Shaw, E.: Using Agents to Overcome Deficiencies in Web-Based Courseware. In: Proceedings of the Workshop “Intelligent Educational Systems on the World Wide Web”, Kobe, Japan, August 18-22. 8th World Conference of the AIED Society (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roberto, V., Mea, V.D., Di, L., Conti, G.A.: MANTHA Agent based Management of Hypermedia Documents. In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia Computing and Systems (IEEE ICMCS 1999), Firenze, vol. II, pp. 814–818. IEEE Computer Society (June 1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Virvou, M., Moundridou, M.: A Web-Based Authoring Tool for Algebra-Related Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Educational Technology & Society 3(2) (2000) ISSN 1436-4522Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beck, J., Stern, M., Haugsjaa, E.: Applications of AI in Education. Crossroads - Special issue on Artificial Intelligence 3(1), 11–15 (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frasson, C., Mengelle, T., Aïmeur, E., Gouardères, G.: An actor-based architecture for intelligent tutoring systems. In: Lesgold, A.M., Frasson, C., Gauthier, G. (eds.) ITS 1996. LNCS, vol. 1086, pp. 57–65. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frasson, C., Mengelle, T., Aimeur, E.: Using Pedagogical Agent. In: a Multistrategic Intelligent Tutoring System.In: Workshop on Pedagogical Agents in AI-ED 1997, World Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education, Japan, pp. 40–47 (August 1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Webber, C., Bergia, L., Pesty, S., Balacheff, N.: The BAGHERA Project: A Multi-Agent Architecture for Human Learning. In: MABLE Workshop - AIED 2001 Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA (May 19, 2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaques, P., Andrade, A., Jung, J., Bordini, R., Vicari, R.: Using pedagogical agents to support collaborative distance learning. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Foundations for a CSCL Community, pp. 546–547. International Society of the Learning Sciences (January 2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tecuci, G., Keeling, H.: Developing Intelligent Educational Agents with Disciple. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 10, 221–237 (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chou, C.-Y., Chan, T.-W., Lin, C.-J.: Redefining the learning companion: the past, present, and future of educational agents. Computers & Education 40(3), 255–269 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garlan, D., Cheng, S.-W., Huang, A.-C., Schmerl, B., Steenkiste, P.: Rainbow: Architecture-Based Self-Adaptation with Reusable InfrastructureGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sparling, M.: “Lessons Learned through Six Years of Component Based Development" published in Castek (as published in Communications of the ACM) (April 09, 2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Virtanen, P.: Measuring and Improving Component-Based Software Development by Pentti Virtanen. University of Turku, Department of Computer Science, FIN-20014 Turku Finland (2003) Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson, W.L., Rickel, J.W., Lester, J.C.: Animated pedagogical agents: Face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 11(1), 47–78 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bruneton, E., Coupaye, T., Leclercq, M., Quema, V., Stefani, J.-B.: An open component model and its support in java. In: Crnković, I., Stafford, J.A., Schmidt, H.W., Wallnau, K. (eds.) CBSE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3054, pp. 7–22. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lau, K.K., Wang, Z.: A survey of software component models. In: 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications. IEEE Computer Society (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bruneton, E., Coupaye, T., Stefani, J.B.: Recursive and dynamic software composition with sharing. In: Proceedings of the 7th ECOOP International Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP 2002), pp. 133–147 (June 2002)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Emmerich, W., Kaveh, N.: Component technologies: Java beans, COM, CORBA, RMI, EJB and the CORBA component model. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE 2002, pp. 691–692. IEEE (May 2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clements, P.C.: A survey of architecture description languages. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Software Specification and Design. IEEE Computer Society (March 1996)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Medvidovic, N., Taylor, R.N.: A classification and comparison framework for software architecture description languages. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 26(1), 70–93 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soufiane Boulehouache
    • 1
    • 2
  • Remdane Maamri
    • 1
  • Zaidi Sahnoun
    • 1
  • Alla Larguet
    • 2
  1. 1.LIRE LaboratoryConstantine 2 UniversityConstantineAlgeria
  2. 2.Université 20 août 1955SkikdaAlgeria

Personalised recommendations