Medium Access Control in Cognitive Impulse Radio UWB Networks

Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)


Impulse Radio Ultra Wide Band (IR-UWB) is a candidate technology in the deployment of cognitive underlay networks. Medium Access Control protocols for IR-UWB networks were however conceived in the past moving from considerations related to performance of the UWB networks, rather than from the need to coexist with other wireless systems. This chapter analyses existing MAC protocols for low rate IR-UWB networks, and focuses on two specific protocols: the \({ (UWB)}^2\) MAC, and the MAC of the IEEE 802.15.4a standard that leveraged the access strategy proposed by \({ (UWB)}^2\). Characteristics of the two MAC protocols are reviewed, and the performance of the \({ (UWB)}^2\) MAC is analysed by means of computer simulations, adopting an accurate model for Multiple User Interference. Results confirm the suitability of the \({ (UWB)}^2\) protocol for low rate IR-UWB networks. Finally, the chapter discusses potential improvements and adaptations to be introduced for \({ (UWB)}^2\) to meet the coexistence requirements imposed by operation of the UWB network in a cognitive fashion.


Medium Access Control Contention Window Clear Channel Assessment Pulse Position Modulation Contention Access Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Part of this work was supported by COST Action IC0902 Cognitive Radio and Networking for Cooperative Coexistence of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks and by the ICT ACROPOLIS Network of Excellence, FP7 project n. 257626.


  1. 1.
    IEEE: IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standard. (2006)
  2. 2.
    Kinney, P.: ZigBee technology: wireless control that simply works. (2003)
  3. 3.
    IEEE: IEEE 802.15.TG4a official web page. (2007)
  4. 4.
    IEEE 802 part 15.4: Wireless medium access control (mac) and physical layer (phy) specifications for low-rate wireless personal area networks (wpans)—amendment 1: Add alternate phys. (2007)
  5. 5.
    Di Benedetto, M.G., Giancola, G.: Understanding Ultra Wide Band Radio Fundamentals. Prentice Hall, NJ (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Nardis, L., Maggio, G.M.: Low Data Rate UWB Networks, pp. 315–339. Wiley, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitola, J., Maguire, G.Q.: Cognitive radio: making software radios more personal. IEEE Pers. Commun. 6(4), 13–18 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cuomo, F., Martello, C., Baiocchi, A., Capriotti, F.: Radio resource sharing for Ad Hoc networking with UWB. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20(9), 1722–1732 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cuomo, F., Martello, C.: Improving wireless access control schemes via adaptive power regulation. 8th International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, pp. 114–127. Venice, Italy (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    IEEE 802.15.3 MAC standard.
  11. 11.
    Abiodun, E.A., Qiu, R.C., N., G.: Demonstrating time reversal in ultra-wideband communications using time domain measurements. 51st International Instrumentation Symposium (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Di Benedetto, M.G., De Nardis, L., Junk, M., Giancola, G.: \({(UWB)}^2\): Uncoordinated, Wireless, Baseborn medium access control for UWB communication networks. J. Mob. Netw. Appl. 10(5), 663–674 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Nardis, L., Giancola, G., Di Benedetto, M.G.: Performance analysis of uncoordinated medium access control in low data rate UWB networks. In: 1st IEEE/CreateNet International Workshop on “Ultrawideband Wireless Networking”, within the 2nd International Conference on Broadband Networks (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Di Benedetto, M.G., De Nardis, L., Giancola, G., Domenicali, D.: The Aloha access \({(UWB)}^2\) protocol revisited for IEEE 802.15.4a. ST J. Res. 4(1), 131–142 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fink, M.: Time-reversal waves and super resolution. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 124, 4th AIP International Conference and the 1st Congress of the IPIA (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiao, S., Chen, J., Liu, X., Wang, B.Z.: Spatial focusing characteristics of time reversal uwb pulse transmission with different antenna arrays. Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 2, 223–232 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Nardis, L., Di Benedetto, M.G.: Medium access control design for UWB communication systems: review and trends. J. Commun. Netw. 5(4), 386–393 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sousa, E.S., Silvester, J.A.: Spreading code protocols for distributed spread-spectrum packet radio networks. IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-36(3), 272–281 (1988)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J., Raju, J.: Distributed assignment of codes for multihop packet-radio networks. In: IEEE Military Communications Conference, vol. 1, pp. 450–454 (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    IEEE 802.11 standard.
  21. 21.
    IEEE 802.15.4a channel model final report, rev.1 (november 2004). ftp://ieee: (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Di Benedetto, M.G., Giancola, G., Di Benedetto, M.D.: Introducing consciousness in UWB networks by hybrid modelling of admission control. Mob. Netw. Appl. 11(4), 521–553 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giancola, G., Di Benedetto, M.G.: A novel approach for estimating multi user interference in impulse radio UWB networks: the pulse collision model. Sig. Process. Spec. Issue Sig. Process. UWB Commun. 86(9), 2185–2197 (2006)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maggio, G.M.: 802.15.4a uwb-phy. Technical Report. IEEE 15–05-0707-01-004a, IEEE 802.15.4a (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Akhtar, A.M., De Nardis, L., Nakhai, M.R., Holland, O., Di Benedetto, M.G., Aghvami, A.H.: Multi-hop cognitive radio networking through beamformed underlay secondary access. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications. Budapest, Hungary (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    The MIXIM OMNeT++ modeling framework.
  28. 28.
    Sablatash, M.: Mitigation of interference by ultra wide band radio into other communication services: evolution to cognitive ultra wide band radio. In: Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 1345–1348 (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ohkuni, K., Hayasi, M., Kohno, R.: A study on interference mitigation method with spectrum shaping code in ds-uwb radar. In: 9th International Conference on Intelligent Transport Systems Telecommunications (ITST), pp. 239–242 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Derode, A., Roux, P., Fink, M.: Robust acoustic time reversal with high-order multiple scattering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4206–4209 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prada, C., Manneville, S., Spoliansky, D., Fink, M.: Decomposition of the time reversal operator: detection and selective focusing on two scatterers. J. Acoustic. Soc. Amer. 99(4), 2067–2076 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Prada, C., Thomas, J.L.: Experimental subwavelength localization of scatterers by decomposition of time reversal operator interpreted as covariance matrix. J. Acoustic. Soc. Amer. 114(1), 235–243 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    De Nardis, L., Fiorina, J., Panaitopol, D., Di Benedetto, M.G.: Combining uwb with time reversal for improved communication and positioning. Springer Telecommun. Syst. (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DIET DepartmentSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations