Occurrence, Degradation, and Effect of Polymer-Based Materials in the Environment

  • Scott Lambert
  • Chris Sinclair
  • Alistair Boxall
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 227)


At a global scale, increasing human population and associated economic growth has lead to an increase in the demand for consumable goods such as those made from polymer-based materials (PBMs) (i.e., plastics and elastomers). During their lifecycle PBMs can be released into the environment from a variety of sources. Once in the environment, PBMs are exposed to a variety of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This causes a change to the PBM structure and facilitates the disintegration of the PBM into increasingly smaller fragments (Andrady 2011). Furthermore these materials are now thought to be contributing to the build-up of chemicals in the environment via the leaching of chemical additives that are used in the manufacturing process (Erren et al. 2009). The majority of physical effects data regarding bulk PBM items identifies them as presenting a hazard to mammals and birds as they can become entangled and/or mistake PBMs as a food source (Derraik 2002). The majority of ecotoxicity data regarding PBM additives has focused on the effects of compounds that are generally referred to as having endocrine disruptive potential, such as the phthalates (Oehlmann et al. 2009). However, receiving environments are potentially exposed to a combination of both these physical and chemical components, as well as substances produced during degradation processes. Therefore, PBMs and their associated degradation products may compromise the viability of organisms at all trophic levels. At the base of the food chain primary producers may be more sensitive to substances that have a biological action. Nonselective and filter-feeding consumers could be susceptible to ingesting both bulk PBMs and fragmented particles, leading to the potential passage up the food chain to secondary and tertiary consumers. Despite this concern, PBMs are regarded under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) as representing a low environmental concern because of their high molecular weight (ECHA 2012). However, the occurrence of PBMs and their associated chemical additives in the aquatic environment have been recognized as an emerging worldwide problem, and their impacts are now gaining a wider scientific and social audience (Hammer et al. 2012; Thompson et al. 2009).


Flame Retardant Natural Rubber Waste Water Treatment Plant Soil Burial Latex Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The development of this manuscript was funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Seedcorn fund.


  1. Abu-Hilal A, Al-Najjar T (2009) Marine litter in coral reef areas along the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. J Environ Manage 90(2):1043–1049Google Scholar
  2. Agamuthu P, Faizura PN (2005) Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste. Waste Manage Res 23:95–100Google Scholar
  3. Agostini DLS, Constantino CJL, Job AE (2008) Thermal degradation of both latex and latex cast films forming membranes—combined TG/FTIR investigation. J Thermal Analy Calorim 91(3):703–707Google Scholar
  4. Al-Salem SM (2009) Influence of natural and accelerated weathering on various formulations of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) films. Mater Design 30(5):1729–1736Google Scholar
  5. Alaee M, Arias P, Sjodin A, Bergman A (2003) An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release. Environ Int 29(6):683–689Google Scholar
  6. Albertsson AC, Andersson SO, Karlsson S (1987) The mechanism of biodegradation of polyethylene. Polym Degrad Stabil 18(1):73–87Google Scholar
  7. Albertsson AC, Karlsson S (1993) Aspects of biodeterioration of inert and degradable polymers. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 31(3):161–170Google Scholar
  8. Albertsson AC, Barenstedt C, Karlsson S, Lindberg T (1995) Degradation product pattern and morphology changes as means to differentiate abiotically and biotically aged degradable polyethylene. Polymer 36(16):3075–3083Google Scholar
  9. Alexander HC, Dill DC, Smith LW, Guiney PD, Dorn P (1988) Bisphenol-a—acute aquatic toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 7(1):19–26Google Scholar
  10. Ali MI, Perveen Q, Ahmad B, Javed I, Razi-Ul-Hussnain R, Andleeb S, Atique N, Ghumro PB, Ahmed S, Hameed A (2009) Studies on biodegradation of cellulose blended polyvinyl chloride films. Int J Agric Biol 11(5):577–580Google Scholar
  11. Aliani S, Molcard A (2003) Hitch-hiking on floating marine debris: macrobenthic species in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia 503(1–3):59–67Google Scholar
  12. Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1596–1605Google Scholar
  13. Applegate B, Pallister C, Kennish JM (2008) Nature and sources of chemicals in marine plastic debris. Marine Debris Alaska: Coordinating Our Efforts 2009(1):53–56Google Scholar
  14. Arditsoglou A, Voutsa D (2010) Partitioning of endocrine disrupting compounds in inland waters and wastewaters discharged into the coastal area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17(3):529–538Google Scholar
  15. Arkatkar A, Arutchelvi J, Bhaduri S, Uppara PV, Doble M (2009) Degradation of unpretreated and thermally pretreated polypropylene by soil consortia. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 63(1):106–111Google Scholar
  16. Artham T, Doble M (2008) Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic polycarbonates. Macromol Biosci 8(1):14–24Google Scholar
  17. Ashley R, Blackwood D, Souter N, Hendry S, Moir J, Dunkerley J, Davies J, Butler D, Cook A, Conlin J, Squibbs M, Britton A, Goldie P (2005) Sustainable disposal of domestic sanitary waste. J Environ Eng-Asce 131(2):206–215Google Scholar
  18. Barnes DKA, Milner P (2005) Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the Atlantic Ocean. Mar Biol 146(4):815–825Google Scholar
  19. Barnes DKA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M (2009) Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1985–1998Google Scholar
  20. Barontini F, Marsanich K, Petarca L, Cozzani V (2004) The thermal degradation process of tetrabromobisphenol A. Indust Engineering Chem Res 43(9):1952–1961Google Scholar
  21. Barse AV, Chakrabarti T, Ghosh TK, Pal AK, Jadhao SB (2007) Endocrine disruption and metabolic changes following exposure of Cyprinus carpio to diethyl phthalate. Pest Biochem Physiol 88(1):36–42Google Scholar
  22. Benton T (1991) Oceans of garbage. Nature 352(6331):113Google Scholar
  23. Benton TG (1995) From castaways to throwaways—marine litter in the Pitcairn Islands. Biol J Linnean Soc 56(1–2):415–422Google Scholar
  24. Bern L (1990) Size-related discrimination of nutritive and inert particles by freshwater zooplankton. J Plankton Res 12(5):1059–1067Google Scholar
  25. Bernhard M, Eubeler JP, Zok S, Knepper TP (2008) Aerobic biodegradation of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights in wastewater and seawater. Water Res 42(19):4791–4801Google Scholar
  26. Birnbaum LS, Staskal DF (2004) Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect 112(1):9–17Google Scholar
  27. Bjorklund K, Cousins AP, Stromvall AM, Malmqvist PA (2009) Phthalates and nonylphenols in urban runoff: occurrence, distribution and area emission factors. Sci Total Environ 407(16):4665–4672Google Scholar
  28. Bode HB, Kerkhoff K, Jendrossek D (2001) Bacterial degradation of natural and synthetic rubber. Biomacromolecules 2(1):295–303Google Scholar
  29. Bonilla E, del Mazo J (2010) Deregulation of the Sod1 and Nd1 genes in mouse fetal oocytes exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Reprod Toxicol 30(3):387–392Google Scholar
  30. Bowman D, Manor-Samsonov N, Golik A (1998) Dynamics of litter pollution on Israeli Mediterranean beaches: a budgetary, litter flux approach. J Coastal Res 14(2):418–432Google Scholar
  31. Bravo M, Gallardo MD, Luna-Jorquera G, Nunez P, Vasquez N, Thiel M (2009) Anthropogenic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): results from a national survey supported by volunteers. Mar Pollut Bull 58(11):1718–1726Google Scholar
  32. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC (2008) Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environ Sci Technol 42(13):5026–5031Google Scholar
  33. Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway T, Thompson R (2011) Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 45(21):9175–9179Google Scholar
  34. Bugoni L, Krause L, Petry MV (2001) Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1330–1334Google Scholar
  35. Call DJ, Markee TP, Geiger DL, Brooke LT, VandeVenter FA, Cox DA, Genisot KI, Robillard KA, Gorsuch JW, Parkerton TF, Reiley MC, Ankley GT, Mount DR (2001) An assessment of the toxicity of phthalate esters to freshwater benthos. 1. Aqueous exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(8):1798–1804Google Scholar
  36. Canesi L, Lorusso LC, Ciacci C, Betti M, Rocchi M, Pojana G, Marcomini A (2007) Immunomodulation of Mytilus hemocytes by individual estrogenic chemicals and environmentally relevant mixtures of estrogens: in vitro and in vivo studies. Aquat Toxicol 81(1):36–44Google Scholar
  37. Carpenter EJ, Anderson SJ, Miklas HP, Peck BB, Harvey GR (1972) Polystyrene spherules in coastal waters. Science 178(4062):749–750Google Scholar
  38. Carpenter EJ, Smith KL (1972) Plastics on the Sargasso Sea surface. Science 175:1240–1241Google Scholar
  39. Caspers N (1998) No estrogenic effects of bisphenol A in Daphnia magna STRAUS. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61(2):143–148Google Scholar
  40. Caulton E, Mocogni M (1987) Preliminary studies of man-made litter in the firth of forth, Scotland. Mar Pollut Bull 18(8):446–450Google Scholar
  41. Cesar MEF, Mariani P, Innocentini-Mei LH, Cardoso E (2009) Particle size and concentration of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and adipate modified starch blend on mineralization in soils with differing textures. Polym Test 28(7):680–687Google Scholar
  42. Chaudhuri UR (2010) Petrochemicals. Fundamentals of petroleum and petrochemical engineering, Chemical Industries, CRC Press, pp 101–129Google Scholar
  43. Chen T-C, Shue M-F, Yeh Y-L, Kao T-J (2010) Bisphenol A occurred in Kao-Pin River and its tributaries in Taiwan. Environ Monit Assess 161(1–4):135–145Google Scholar
  44. Cherian E, Jayachandran K (2009) Microbial degradation of natural rubber latex by a novel species of Bacillus sp SBS25 isolated from soil. Int J Environ Res 3(4):599–604Google Scholar
  45. Christiansen LB, Pedersen KL, Pedersen SN, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P (2000) In vivo comparison of xenoestrogens using rainbow trout vitellogenin induction as a screening system. Environ Toxicol Chem 19(7):1867–1874Google Scholar
  46. Cierjacks A, Behr F, Kowarik I (2012) Operational performance indicators for litter management at festivals in semi-natural landscapes. Ecol Indic 13:328–337Google Scholar
  47. CIPET (2010) Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology—plastic industry statistics.
  48. Cit I, Sinag A, Yumak T, Ucar S, Misirlioglu Z, Canel M (2010) Comparative pyrolysis of polyolefins (PP and LDPE) and PET. Polym Bull 64(8):817–834Google Scholar
  49. Claereboudt MR (2004) Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Mar Pollut Bull 49(9–10):770–777Google Scholar
  50. Clara M, Windhofer G, Hartl W, Braun K, Simon M, Gans O, Scheffknecht C, Chovanec A (2010) Occurrence of phthalates in surface runoff, untreated and treated wastewater and fate during wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 78(9):1078–1084Google Scholar
  51. Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Poll Bull 62(12):2588–2597Google Scholar
  52. Collignon A, Hecq JH, Glagani F, Voisin P, Collard F, Goffart A (2012) Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. Mar Poll Bull 64:861–864Google Scholar
  53. Colton JB, Knapp FD, Burns BR (1974) Plastic particles in surface waters of northwestern Atlantic. Science 185(4150):491–497Google Scholar
  54. Convey P, Barnes DKA, Morton A (2002) Debris accumulation on oceanic island shores of the Scotia Arc. Antarctica Polar Biol 25(8):612–617Google Scholar
  55. Cooper DA, Corcoran PL (2010) Effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the degradation of plastic beach debris on the island of Kauai, Hawaii. Mar Pollut Bull 60(5):650–654Google Scholar
  56. Cosgrove L, McGeechan PL, Robson GD, Handley PS (2007) Fungal communities associated with degradation of polyester polyurethane in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(18):5817–5824Google Scholar
  57. Covaci A, Gheorghe A, Voorspoels S, Maervoet J, Steen Redeker E, Blust R, Schepens P (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediment cores from the Western Scheldt river (Belgium): analytical aspects and depth profiles. Environ Int 31(3):367–375Google Scholar
  58. Cunningham DJ, Wilson SP (2003) Marine debris on beaches of the Greater Sydney Region. J Coastal Res 19(2):421–430Google Scholar
  59. Dargnat C, Teil MJ, Chevreuil M, Blanchard M (2009) Phthalate removal throughout wastewater treatment plant case study of Marne Aval station (France). Sci Total Environ 407(4):1235–1244Google Scholar
  60. de Wit CA (2002) An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 46(5):583–624Google Scholar
  61. Debenest T, Gagne F, Petit AN, Andre C, Kohli M, Blaise C (2010) Ecotoxicity of a brominated flame retardant (tetrabromobisphenol A) and its derivatives to aquatic organisms. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 152(4):407–412Google Scholar
  62. DEFRA (2012) Litter and refuse. Guidance on Part 4 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 as amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005.
  63. Derraik JGB (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 44(9):842–852Google Scholar
  64. do Sul JAI, Costa MF (2007) Marine debris review for Latin America and the Wider Caribbean Region: from the 1970s until now, and where do we go from here? Mar Pollut Bull 54(8):1087–1104Google Scholar
  65. Dorostghoal M, Zardkaf A, Dezfoolian A (2010) Chronic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on stereological parameters of testis in adult wistar rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 13(4):170–176Google Scholar
  66. Dreyer K, Fourie LJ, Kok DJ (1999) Assessment of cattle owners’ perceptions and expectations, and identification of constraints on production in a peri-urban, resource-poor environment. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 66(2):95–102Google Scholar
  67. Drimal P, Hoffmann J, Druzbik M (2007) Evaluating the aerobic biodegradability of plastics in soil environments through GC and IR analysis of gaseous phase. Polym Test 26(6):729–741Google Scholar
  68. Duft M, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Weltje L, Tillmann M, Oehlmann J (2003) Stimulated embryo production as a parameter of estrogenic exposure via sediments in the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Aquat Toxicol 64(4):437–449Google Scholar
  69. Duong CN, Ra JS, Cho J, Kim SD, Choi HK, Park JH, Kim KW, Inam E, Kim SD (2010) Estrogenic chemicals and estrogenicity in river waters of South Korea and seven Asian countries. Chemosphere 78(3):286–293Google Scholar
  70. ECHA (2012) European Chemicals Agency. Guidance for monomer and polymers. Version 2.0. Guidance for the implementation of REACH.
  71. Endo S, Takizawa R, Okuda K, Takada H, Chiba K, Kanehiro H, Ogi H, Yamashita R, Date T (2005) Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in beached resin pellets: variability among individual particles and regional differences. Mar Pollut Bull 50(10):1103–1114Google Scholar
  72. EPA (2012) Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: screening and grit removal.
  73. Eriksson C, Burton H (2003) Origins and biological accumulation of small plastic particles in fur seals from Macquarie Island. Ambio 32(6):380–384Google Scholar
  74. Eriksson J, Rahm S, Green N, Bergman A, Jakobsson E (2004) Photochemical transformations of tetrabromobisphenol A and related phenols in water. Chemosphere 54(1):117–126Google Scholar
  75. Erren T, Zeuss D, Steffany F, Meyer-Rochow B (2009) Increase of wildlife cancer: an echo of plastic pollution? Nat Rev Cancer 9(11):842Google Scholar
  76. Fatoki OS, Bornman M, Ravandhalala L, Chimuka L, Genthe B, Adeniyi A (2010) Phthalate ester plasticizers in freshwater systems of Venda, South Africa and potential health effects. Water Sa 36(1):117–125Google Scholar
  77. Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 58(8):1225–1228Google Scholar
  78. Fernandez MP, Noguerol TN, Lacorte S, Buchanan I, Pina B (2009) Toxicity identification fractionation of environmental estrogens in waste water and sludge using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and recombinant yeast assay. Anal Bioanal Chem 393(3):957–968Google Scholar
  79. Fontana AR, Silva MF, Martinez LD, Wuilloud RG, Altamirano JC (2009) Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water and soil samples by cloud point extraction-ultrasound-assisted back-extraction-gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216(20):4339–4346Google Scholar
  80. Forbes VE, Warbritton R, Aufderheide J, Van Der Hoeven N, Caspers N (2008) Effects of bisphenol a on fecundity, egg hatchability, and juvenile growth of Marisa cornuarietis. Environ Toxicol Chem 27(11):2332–2340Google Scholar
  81. Foster-Smith J, Cefas ACB, Evans SM, Prince J (2007) Human impacts on Cable Beach, Broome (Western Australia). Coast Manage 35(2–3):181–194Google Scholar
  82. Fries E, Zarfl C (2012) Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to low and high density polyethylene (PE). Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(4):1296–1304Google Scholar
  83. Fromme H, Kuchler T, Otto T, Pilz K, Muller J, Wenzel A (2002) Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water Res 36(6):1429–1438Google Scholar
  84. Furhacker M, Scharf S, Weber H (2000) Bisphenol A: emissions from point sources. Chemosphere 41(5):751–756Google Scholar
  85. Galgani F, Souplet A, Cadiou Y (1996) Accumulation of debris on the deep sea floor off the French Mediterranean coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 142(1–3):225–234Google Scholar
  86. Galgani F, Leaute JP, Moguedet P, Souplet A, Verin Y, Carpentier A, Goraguer H, Latrouite D, Andral B, Cadiou Y, Mahe JC, Poulard JC, Nerisson P (2000) Litter on the sea floor along European coasts. Mar Pollut Bull 40(6):516–527Google Scholar
  87. Ghanbari H, Viatge H, Kidane AG, Burriesci G, Tavakoli M, Seifalian AM (2009) Polymeric heart values: new materials, emerging hopes. Trends Biotechnol 27:359–367Google Scholar
  88. Gopferich A (1996) Mechanisms of polymer degradation and erosion. Biomaterials 17(2):103–114Google Scholar
  89. Gregory MR (1977) Plastic pellets on New Zealand beaches. Mar Pollut Bull 8(4):82–84Google Scholar
  90. Gregory MR (2009) Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings-entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2013–2025Google Scholar
  91. Hammer J, Kraak MHS, Parsons JR (2012) Plastics in the environment: the dark side of a modern gift. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 220:1–44Google Scholar
  92. Hanni KD, Pyle P (2000) Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials at south-east Farallon Island, California, 1976–1998. Mar Pollut Bull 40(12):1076–1081Google Scholar
  93. Harrad S, Abdallah MA-E, Rose NL, Turner SD, Davidson TA (2009) Current-use brominated flame betardants in water, sediment, and fish from English lakes. Environ Sci Technol 43(24):9077–9083Google Scholar
  94. Harries JE, Runnalls T, Hill E, Harris CA, Maddix S, Sumpter JP, Tyler R (2000) Development of a reproductive performance test for endocrine disrupting chemicals using pair-breeding fathead minnows (pimephales promelas). Environ Sci Technol 34:3003–3011Google Scholar
  95. Hess NA, Ribis CA, Vining I (1999) Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994–1996. Mar Poll Bull 38(10):885–890Google Scholar
  96. Hill M, Stabile C, Steffen LK, Hill A (2002) Toxic effects of endocrine disrupters on freshwater sponges: common developmental abnormalities. Environ Pollut 117(2):295–300Google Scholar
  97. Hinojosa IA, Thiel M (2009) Floating marine debris in fjords, gulfs and channels of southern Chile. Mar Pollut Bull 58(3):341–350Google Scholar
  98. Hites RA (2004) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 38(4):945–956Google Scholar
  99. Hu J, Liang Y, Chen MJ, Wang XR (2009) Assessing the toxicity of TBBPA and HBCD by zebrafish embryo toxicity assay and biomarker analysis. Environ Toxicol 24(4):334–342Google Scholar
  100. Hu XY, Wen B, Shan XQ (2003) Survey of phthalate pollution in arable soils in China. J Environ Monit 5(4):649–653Google Scholar
  101. Huang PC, Tien CJ, Sun YM, Hsieh CY, Lee CC (2008) Occurrence of phthalates in sediment and biota: relationship to aquatic factors and the biota-sediment accumulation factor. Chemosphere 73(4):539–544Google Scholar
  102. Ikonomou MG, Rayne S, Fischer M, Fernandez MP, Cretney W (2002) Occurrence and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from coastal British Columbia, Canada. Chemosphere 46(5):649–663Google Scholar
  103. Ishigaki T, Sugano W, Nakanishi A, Tateda M, Ike M, Fujita M (2004) The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors. Chemosphere 54(3):225–233Google Scholar
  104. Iskander MG, Hassan M (2001) Accelerated degradation of recycled plastic piling in aggressive soils. J Compos Constr 5(3):179–187Google Scholar
  105. Jensen J, van Langevelde J, Pritzl G, Krogh PH (2001) Effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate on the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(5):1085–1091Google Scholar
  106. Jonsson S, Baun A (2003) Toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic esters to a crustacean, a green alga, and a bacterium. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(12):3037–3043Google Scholar
  107. Julinova M, Slavik R (2012) Removal of phthalates from aqueous solution by different adsorbents: a short review. J Environ Manage 94(1):13–24Google Scholar
  108. Kaczmarek H, Bajer K, Galka P, Kotnowska B (2007) Photodegradation studies of novel biodegradable blends based on poly(ethylene oxide) and pectin. Polym Degrad Stabil 92(11):2058–2069Google Scholar
  109. Kapanen A, Schettini E, Vox G, Itavaara M (2008) Performance and environmental impact of biodegradable films in agriculture: a field study on protected cultivation. J Polym Environ 16(2):109–122Google Scholar
  110. Kasahara E, Sato EF, Miyoshi M, Konaka R, Hiramoto K, Sasaki J, Tokuda M, Nakano Y, Inoue M (2002) Role of oxidative stress in germ cell apoptosis induced by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Biochem J 365:849–856Google Scholar
  111. Katsanevakis S, Katsarou A (2004) Influences on the distribution of marine debris on the seafloor of shallow coastal areas in Greece (eastern Mediterranean). Water Air Soil Pollut 159(1–4):325–337Google Scholar
  112. Kelly MA, Reid AM, Quinn-Hosey KM, Fogarty AM, Roche JJ, Brougham CA (2010) Investigation of the estrogenic risk to feral male brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Shannon International River Basin District of Ireland. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73(7):1658–1665Google Scholar
  113. Kijchavengkul T, Auras R, Rubino M, Alvarado E, Montero JRC, Rosales JM (2010) Atmospheric and soil degradation of aliphatic-aromatic polyester films. Polym Degrad Stabil 95(2):99–107Google Scholar
  114. Kim Y-J, Osako M, Sakai S-I (2006) Leachingcharacteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from flame-retardant plastics. Chemosphere 65:506–513Google Scholar
  115. Klemchuk PP (1990) Degradable plastics—a critical-review. Polym Degrad Stabil 27(2):183–202Google Scholar
  116. Ko EJ, Kim KW, Kang SY, Kim SD, Bang SB, Hamm SY, Kim DW (2007) Monitoring of environmental phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment effluents and river waters, Korea. Talanta 73:674–683Google Scholar
  117. Kohler M, Zennegg M, Bogdal C, Gerecke AC, Schmid P, Heeb NV, Sturm M, Vonmont H, Kohler HPE, Giger W (2008) Temporal trends, congener patterns, and sources of Octa-, Nona-, and decabromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) in Swiss lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 42(17):6378–6384Google Scholar
  118. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211Google Scholar
  119. Koutny M, Amato P, Muchova M, Ruzicka J, Delort AM (2009) Soil bacterial strains able to grow on the surface of oxidized polyethylene film containing prooxidant additives. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 63(3):354–357Google Scholar
  120. Koutsodendris A, Papatheodorou G, Kougiourouki O, Georgiadis M (2008) Benthic marine litter in four Gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean; abundance, composition and source identification. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77(3):501–512Google Scholar
  121. Krzan A, Hemjinda S, Miertus S, Corti A, Chiellini E (2006) Standardization and certification in the area of environmentally degradable plastics. Polym Degrad Stabil 91(12):2819–2833Google Scholar
  122. Kumar AP, Pandey JK, Kumar B, Singh RP (2006) Photo-bio-degradability of agro waste and ethylene-propylene copolymers composites under abiotic and biotic environments. J Polym Environ 14(2):203–212Google Scholar
  123. Kuriyama Y, Tokai T, Tabata K, Kanehiro H (2003) Distribution and composition of litter on seabed of Tokyo Bay and its age analysis. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 69(5):770–781Google Scholar
  124. Kusui T, Noda M (2003) International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan. Mar Pollut Bull 47(1–6):175–179Google Scholar
  125. Laist DW (1987) Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In: Coe JM, Rogers DB (eds) Marine debris—sources, impacts and solutions. Springer, New York, pp 99–139Google Scholar
  126. Larsson P, Thuren A, Gahnstrom G (1986) Phthalate-esters inhibit microbial activity in aquatic sediments. Environ Poll Ser Ecol Biol 42(3):223–231Google Scholar
  127. Lattin GL, Moore CJ, Zellers AF, Moore SL, Weisberg SB (2004) A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton at different depths near the southern California shore. Mar Pollut Bull 49(4):291–294Google Scholar
  128. Lee SK, Owens GA, Veeramachaneni DN (2005) Exposure to low concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate during embryogenesis reduces survivability and impairs development of Xenopus laevis frogs. J Toxicol Env Health Part A 68(10):763–772Google Scholar
  129. Liao CS, Chen LC, Chen BS, Lin SH (2009) Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Chemosphere 78(3):342–346Google Scholar
  130. Liebezeit G (2008) Marine litter on the Kachelotplate, Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea. Senckenbergiana Maritima 38(2):147–151Google Scholar
  131. Liebezeit G, Dubaish F (2012) Microplastics in beaches of the East Frisian islands Spiekeroog and Kachelotplate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89(1):213–217Google Scholar
  132. Linos A, Berekaa MM, Reichelt R, Keller U, Schmitt J, Flemming HC, Kroppenstedt RM, Steinbuchel A (2000) Biodegradation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubbers by distinct actinomycetes: microbial strategies and detailed surface analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 66(4):1639–1645Google Scholar
  133. Liu H, Liu X, Wang X, Wang X, Yu H (2007) Toxicity of BPA land TBBPA to Daphnia magna and zebrafish Brachydanio rerio. Huanjing Kexue 28(8):1784–1787Google Scholar
  134. Liu Y, Guan Y-T, Tam NFY, Mizuno T, Tsuno H, Zhu W-P (2011) Influence of rainfall and basic water quality parameters on the distribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal area. Water Air Soil Pollut 209(1–4):333–343Google Scholar
  135. Lucas N, Bienaime C, Belloy C, Queneudec M, Silvestre F, Nava-Saucedo JE (2008) Polymer biodegradation: mechanisms and estimation techniques. Chemosphere 73(4):429–442Google Scholar
  136. Luross JM, Alaee M, Sergeant DB, Cannon CM, Whittle DM, Solomon KR, Muir DCG (2002) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in lake trout from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Chemosphere 46(5):665–672Google Scholar
  137. Magagula B, Nhlapo N, Focke WW (2009) Mn2Al-LDH- and Co2Al-LDH-stearate as photodegradants for LDPE film. Polym Degrad Stabil 94(6):947–954Google Scholar
  138. Majer AP, Vedolin MC, Turra A (2012) Plastic pellets as oviposition site and means of dispersal for the ocean-skater insect Halobates. Mar Pollut Bull 64(6):1143–1147Google Scholar
  139. Maragou NC, Makri A, Lampi EN, Thomaidis NS, Koupparis MA (2008) Migration of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles under real use conditions. Food Addit Contam 25(3):373–383Google Scholar
  140. Marcial HS, Hagiwara A, Snell TW (2003) Estrogenic compounds affect development of harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(12):3025–3030Google Scholar
  141. Martin OV, Voulvoulis N (2009) Sustainable risk management of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewaters. Philos Trans Royal Soc A: Math Phys Eng Sci 367(1904):3895–3922Google Scholar
  142. Martinez-Ribes L, Basterretxea G, Palmer M, Tintore J (2007) Origin and abundance of beach debris in the Balearic Islands. Scientia Marina 71(2):305–314Google Scholar
  143. Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2001) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):318–324Google Scholar
  144. McDowell DC, Metcalfe CD (2001) Phthalate esters in sediments near a sewage treatment plant outflow in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario: SFE extraction and environmental distribution. J Gt Lakes Res 27(1):3–9Google Scholar
  145. Mersiowsky I, Weller M, Ejlertsson J (2001) Fate of plasticised PVC products under landfill conditions: a laboratory-scale landfill simulation reactor study. Water Res 35(13):3063–3070Google Scholar
  146. Metcalfe CD, Metcalfe TL, Kiparissis Y, Koenig BG, Khan C, Hughes RJ, Croley TR, March RE, Potter T (2001) Estrogenic potency of chemicals detected in sewage treatment plant effluents as determined by in vivo assays with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ Toxicol Chem 20(2):297–308Google Scholar
  147. Mihaich EM, Friederich U, Caspers N, Hall AT, Klecka GM, Dimond SS, Staples CA, Ortego LS, Hentges SG (2009) Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Safe 72(5):1392–1399Google Scholar
  148. Mohapatra DP, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY (2010) Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge—fate of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 78(8):923–941Google Scholar
  149. Mohee R, Unmar G (2007) Determining biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled and natural composting environments. Waste Manage 27(11):1486–1493Google Scholar
  150. Moore CJ (2008) Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing long-term threat. Environ Res 108:131–139Google Scholar
  151. Moore CJ, Moore SL, Leecaster MK, Weisberg SB (2001) A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific central gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1297–1300Google Scholar
  152. Morris RJ (1980) Plastic debris in the surface waters of the south-Atlantic. Mar Pollut Bull 11(6):164–166Google Scholar
  153. Mu XY, Rider CV, Hwang GS, Hoy H, Le Blanc GA (2005) Covert signal disruption: anti-ecdysteroidal activity of bisphenol a involves cross talk between signaling pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(1):146–152Google Scholar
  154. Mulder KF (1998) Sustainable consumption and production of plastics? Technol Forecast Soc Chang 58(1–2):105–124Google Scholar
  155. Mutha NH, Patel M, Premnath V (2006) Plastics materials flow analysis for India. Resour Conserv Recy 47:222–244Google Scholar
  156. Nagai N, Matsunobe T, Imai T (2005a) Infrared analysis of depth profiles in UV-photochemical degradation of polymers. Polym Degrad Stabil 88(2):224–233Google Scholar
  157. Nagai Y, Ogawa T, Nishimoto Y, Ohishi F (1999) Analysis of weathering of a thermoplastic polyester elastomer II. Factors affecting weathering of a polyether-polyester elastomer. Polym Degrad Stabil 65(2):217–224Google Scholar
  158. Nagai Y, Nakamura D, Miyake T, Ueno H, Matsumoto N, Kaji A, Ohishi F (2005b) Photodegradation mechanisms in poly(2,6-butylenenaphthalate-co-tetramethyleneglycol) (PBN-PTMG). I: influence of the PTMG content. Polym Degrad Stabil 88(2):251–255Google Scholar
  159. Nagelkerken I, Wiltjer G, Debrot AO, Pors L (2001) Baseline study of submerged marine debris at beaches in Curacao, West Indies. Mar Pollut Bull 42(9):786–789Google Scholar
  160. Njeru J (2006) The urban political ecology of plastic bag waste problem in Nairobi, Kenya. Geoforum 37(6):1046–1058Google Scholar
  161. Norman A, Borjeson H, David F, Tienpont B, Norrgren L (2007) Studies of uptake, elimination, and late effects in atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) dietary exposed to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) during early life. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52(2):235–242Google Scholar
  162. NRS (2011) Natural rubber statistics.
  163. Oehlmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Kloas W, Jagnytsch O, Lutz I, Kusk KO, Wollenberger L, Santos EM, Paull GC, Van Look KJW, Tyler CR (2009) A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2047–2062Google Scholar
  164. Ohtani H, Miura I, Ichikawa Y (2000) Effects of dibutyl phthalate as an environmental endocrine disrupter on gonadal sex differentiation of genetic males of the frog Rana rugosa. Environ Health Perspect 108(12):1189–1193Google Scholar
  165. Oigman-Pszczol SS, Creed JC (2007) Quantification and classification of marine litter on beaches along Armacao dos Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Coastal Res 23(2):421–428Google Scholar
  166. Omidi A, Naeemipoor H, Hosseini M (2012) Plastic debris in the digestive tract of sheep and goats: an increasing environmental contamination in Birjand. Iran Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(5):691–694Google Scholar
  167. Orbea A, Ortiz-Zarragoitia M, Cajaraville MP (2002) Interactive effects of benzo(a) pyrene and cadmium and effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on antioxidant and peroxisomal enzymes and peroxisomal volume density in the digestive gland of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. Biomarkers 7(1):33–48Google Scholar
  168. Orhan Y, Buyukgungor H (2000) Enhancement of biodegradability of disposable polyethylene in controlled biological soil. Int Biodeter Biodegrad 45(1–2):49–55Google Scholar
  169. Orhan Y, Hrenovic J, Buyukgungor H (2004) Biodegradation of plastic compost bags under controlled soil conditions. Acta Chim Slov 51(3):579–588Google Scholar
  170. Pachekoski WM, Agnelli JAM, Belem LP (2009) Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of poly (hydroxybutyrate) and polypropylene blends after processing. Mater Res-Ibero-Am J Mater 12(2):159–164Google Scholar
  171. Page B, McKenzie J, McIntosh R, Baylis A, Morrissey A, Calvert N, Haase T, Berris M, Dowie D, Shaughnessy PD, Goldsworth SD (2004) Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after government and industry attempts to reduce the problem. Mar Pollut Bull 49(1–2):33–42Google Scholar
  172. Palmisano AC, Pettigrew CA (1992) Biodegradability of plastics. Bioscience 42(9):680–685Google Scholar
  173. Panyam J, Dali MA, Sahoo SK, Ma WX, Chakravarthi SS, Amidon GL, Levy RJ, Labhasetwar V (2003) Polymer degradation and in vitro release of a model protein from poly(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nano- and microparticles. J Contr Release 92(1–2):173–187Google Scholar
  174. Park EJ, Jo HJ, Kim HJ, Cho K, Jung J (2008) Effects of gamma-ray treatment on wastewater toxicity from a rubber products factory. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 277(3):619–624Google Scholar
  175. Park SY, Choi J (2007) Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ecotoxicity assay using human cell and environmental species for the screening of the risk from pollutant exposure. Environ Int 33(6):817–822Google Scholar
  176. Pascoe D, Carroll K, Karntanut W, Watts MM (2002) Toxicity of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A to the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43(1):56–63Google Scholar
  177. Patyna PJ, Brown RP, Davi RA, Letinski DJ, Thomas PE, Cooper KR, Parkerton TF (2006) Hazard evaluation of diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate in a Japanese medaka multigenerational assay. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 65(1):36–47Google Scholar
  178. Peijnenburg W, Struijs J (2006) Occurrence of phthalate esters in the environment of the Netherlands. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 63(2):204–215Google Scholar
  179. Petry MV, Kruger L, Fonseca VSD, Brummelhaus J, Piuco RD (2009) Diet and ingestion of synthetics by Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea off southern Brazil. J Ornithol 150(3):601–606Google Scholar
  180. Philippart JL, Sinturel C, Gardette JL (1997) Influence of light intensity on the photooxidation of polypropylene. Polymer Degrad Stabil 58(3):261–268Google Scholar
  181. Pinto F, Costa P, Gulyurtlu I, Cabrita I (1999) Pyrolysis of plastic wastes. 1. Effect of plastic waste composition on product yield. J Anal Appl Pyrol 51(1–2):39–55Google Scholar
  182. Plastics-Europe (2010) Plastics the facts 2010: an analysis of European plastics, production, demand and recovery for 2009.
  183. Pojana G, Gomiero A, Jonkers N, Marcomini A (2007) Natural and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water, sediment and biota of a coastal lagoon. Environ Int 33(7):929–936Google Scholar
  184. Rayne S (2008) The need for reducing plastic shopping bay use and disposal in Africa. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 3:1–3Google Scholar
  185. Reddy CSK, Ghai R, Rashmi T, Kalia VC (2003) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview. Bioresour Technol 87(2):137–146Google Scholar
  186. Reddy MM, Deighton M, Bhattacharya S, Parthasarathy R (2009) Biodegradation of montmorillonite filled oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. J Appl Polym Sci 113(5):2826–2832Google Scholar
  187. Remberger M, Sternbeck J, Palm A, Kaj L, Stromberg K, Brorstrom-Lunden E (2004) The environmental occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane in Sweden. Chemosphere 54(1):9–21Google Scholar
  188. Rhee GS, Kim SH, Kim SS, Sohn KH, Kwack SJ, Kim BH, Park KL (2002) Comparison of embryotoxicity of ESBO and phthalate esters using an in vitro battery system. Toxicol In Vitro 16(4):443–448Google Scholar
  189. Ribeiro C, Tiritan ME, Rocha E, Rocha MJ (2009) Seasonal and spatial distribution of several endocrine-disrupting compounds in the Douro River Estuary, Portugal. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56(1):1–11Google Scholar
  190. Ribic CA (1998) Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996. Mar Pollut Bull 36(11):887–891Google Scholar
  191. Richardson AJ, Walne AW, John AWG, Jonas TD, Lindley JA, Sims DW, Stevens D, Witt M (2006) Using continuous plankton recorder data. Prog Oceanogr 68(1):27–74Google Scholar
  192. Rifaat HM, Yosery MA (2004) Identification and characterisation of rubber degrading actinobacteria. Appl Ecol Environ Res 2(1):63–70Google Scholar
  193. Robards MD, Piatt JF, Wohl KD (1995) Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific. Mar Pollut Bull 30(2):151–157Google Scholar
  194. Robinson BJ, Hellou J (2009) Biodegradation of endocrine disrupting compounds in harbour seawater and sediments. Sci Total Environ 407(21):5713–5718Google Scholar
  195. Roh JY, Jung IH, Lee JY, Choi JH (2007) Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegcans. Toxicology 237(1–3):126–133Google Scholar
  196. Rossi M, Lent T (2006) Creating safe and healthy spaces: selecting materials that support healing. Accessed 20 Aug 2012.
  197. Roy PK, Titus S, Surekha P, Tulsi E, Deshmukh C, Rajagopal C (2008) Degradation of abiotically aged LDPE films containing pro-oxidant by bacterial consortium. Polym Degrad Stabil 93(10):1917–1922Google Scholar
  198. Rutkowska M, Heimowska A, Krasowska K, Janik H (2002a) Biodegradability of polyethylene starch blends in sea water. Polish J Environ Studies 11(3):267–271Google Scholar
  199. Rutkowska M, Krasowska K, Heimowska A, Steinka I, Janik H (2002b) Degradation of polyurethanes in sea water. Polym Degrad Stabil 76(2):233–239Google Scholar
  200. Ryan PG, Connell AD, Gardner BD (1988) Plastic ingestion and PCBs in seabirds—is there a relationship. Mar Pollut Bull 19(4):174–176Google Scholar
  201. Ryan PG, Moore CJ, van Franeker JA, Moloney CL (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1999–2012Google Scholar
  202. Saad GR, Khalil TM, Sabaa MW (2010) Photo- and bio-degradation of poly(ester-urethane)s films based on poly[(R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate] and poly(epsilon-Caprolactone) blocks. J Polym Res 17(1):33–42Google Scholar
  203. Saal FS, Parmigiani S, Palanza PL, Everett LG, Ragaini R (2008) The plastic world: sources, amounts, ecological impacts and effects on development, reproduction, brain and behavior in aquatic and terrestrial animals and humans introduction. Environ Res 108(2):127–130Google Scholar
  204. Sadi RK, Fechine GJM, Demarquette NR (2010) Photodegradation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Polym Degrad Stabil 95(12):2318–2327Google Scholar
  205. Sajiki J, Yonekubo J (2003) Leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) to seawater from polycarbonate plastic and its degradation by reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere 51(1):55–62Google Scholar
  206. Sandy EH, Yao J, Zheng SX, Gogra AB, Chen HL, Zheng H, Yormah TBR, Zhang X, Zaray G, Ceccanti B, Choi MMF (2010) A comparative cytotoxicity study of isomeric alkylphthalates to metabolically variant bacteria. J Hazard Mater 182(1–3):631–639Google Scholar
  207. Santos IR, Friedrich A, do Sul JAI (2009) Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 148(1–4):455–462Google Scholar
  208. Saron C, Felisberti MI (2006) Influence of colorants on the degradation and stabilization of polymers. Quim Nova 29(1):124–128Google Scholar
  209. Seco Pon JP, Becherucci ME (2012) Spatial and temporal variations of urban litter in Mar del Plata, the major coastal city of Argentina. Waste Manage (New York, NY) 32(2):343–348Google Scholar
  210. Sellstrom U, Jansson B (1995) Analysis of tetrabromobisphenol a in a product and environmental-samples. Chemosphere 31(4):3085–3092Google Scholar
  211. Shah AA, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S (2008) Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv 26:246–265Google Scholar
  212. Shang XY, Fu X, Chen XD, Yang LS (2009) Biodegradation of blends of polyethylene-octene elastomer with starches by fungi. J Appl Polym Sci 114(6):3574–3584Google Scholar
  213. Shaw SD, Berger ML, Weijs L, Covaci A (2012) Tissue-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) including deca-BDE and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in harbor seals from the northwest Atlantic. Environ Int 44:1–6Google Scholar
  214. Silva-Cavalcanti JS, de Araujo MCB, da Costa MF (2009) Plastic litter on an urban beach—a case study in Brazil. Waste Manage Res 27(1):93–97Google Scholar
  215. Silvestre C, Duraccio D, Cimmino S (2011) Food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials. Prog Poly Sci 36:1766–1782Google Scholar
  216. Singh B, Sharma N (2008) Mechanistic implications of plastic degradation. Polym Degrad Stabil 93(3):561–584Google Scholar
  217. Soderstrom G, Sellstrom U, De Wit CA, Tysklind M (2004) Photolytic debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). Environ Sci Technol 38(1):127–132Google Scholar
  218. Staples CA, Dorn PB, Klecka GM, O'Block ST, Harris LR (1998) A review of the environmental fate, effects, and exposures of bisphenol A. Chemosphere 36(10):2149–2173Google Scholar
  219. Stasinakis AS, Gatidou G, Mamais D, Thomaidis NS, Lekkas TD (2008) Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupters in Greek sewage treatment plants. Water Res 42(6–7):1796–17804Google Scholar
  220. Stefatos A, Charalampakis M, Papatheodorou G, Ferentinos G (1999) Marine debris on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea: examples from two enclosed gulfs in western Greece. Mar Pollut Bull 38(5):389–393Google Scholar
  221. Storrier KL, McGlashan DJ, Bonellie S, Velander K (2007) Beach litter deposition at a selection of beaches in the firth of forth, Scotland. J Coastal Res 23(4):813–822Google Scholar
  222. Sudhakar M, Trishul A, Doble M, Kumar KS, Jahan SS, Inbakandan D, Viduthalai RR, Umadevi VR, Murthy PS, Venkatesan R (2007) Biofouling and biodegradation of polyolefins in ocean waters. Polym Degrad Stabil 92(9):1743–1752Google Scholar
  223. Sudhakar M, Doble M, Murthy SP, Venkatesan R (2008) Marine microbe-mediated biodegradation of low- and high-density polyethylenes. Int Biodeter Biodegr 61:203–213Google Scholar
  224. Suzuki S, Hasegawa A (2006) Determination of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers and tetrabromobisphenol a in water and sediment by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Sci 22(3):469–474Google Scholar
  225. Tatai L, Moore TG, Adhikari R, Malherbe F, Jayasekara R, Griffiths I, Gunatillake PA (2007) Thermoplastic biodegradable polyurethanes: the effect of chain extender structure on properties and in vitro degradation. Biomaterials 28(36):5407–5417Google Scholar
  226. Teil MJ, Blanchard M, Chevreuil M (2006) Atmospheric fate of phthalate esters in an urban area (Paris-France). Sci Total Environ 354(2–3):212–223Google Scholar
  227. Teuten EL, Rowland SJ, Galloway TS, Thompson RC (2007) Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 41(22):7759–7764Google Scholar
  228. Teuten EL, Saquing JM, Knappe DRU, Barlaz MA, Jonsson S, Bjorn A, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC, Galloway TS, Yamashita R, Ochi D, Watanuki Y, Moore C, Pham HV, Tana TS, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Zakaria MP, Akkhavong K, Ogata Y, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Mizukawa K, Hagino Y, Imamura A, Saha M, Takada H (2009) Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2027–2045Google Scholar
  229. Tharpes YL (1989) International environmental law: turning the tide on marine pollution. U Miami Inter-Am L Rev 20(3):579–614Google Scholar
  230. Thibaut R, Porte C (2004) Effects of endocrine disrupters on sex steroid synthesis and metabolism pathways in fish. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 92(5):485–494Google Scholar
  231. Thiel M, Hinojosa I, Vasquez N, Macaya E (2003) Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile). Mar Pollut Bull 46(2):224–231Google Scholar
  232. Thompson RC, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS, Swan SH (2009) Plastic, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos Trans Royal Soc 364(21):53–66Google Scholar
  233. Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP, Davis A, Rowland SJ, John AWG, McGonigle D, Russell AE (2004) Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304(5672):838Google Scholar
  234. Tickner JA, Schettler T, Guidotti T, McCally M, Rossi M (2001) Health risks posed by use of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices: a critical review. Am J Ind Med 39(1):100–111Google Scholar
  235. Tsuchii A, Takeda K, Tokiwa Y (1997) Degradation of the rubber in truck tires by a strain of Nocardia. Biodegradation 7(5):405–413Google Scholar
  236. Turner A, Holmes L (2011) Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean). Mar Pollut Bull 62(2):377–381Google Scholar
  237. Uren-Webster TM, Lewis C, Filby AL, Paull GC, Santos EM (2010) Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol 99(3):360–369Google Scholar
  238. USEPA (2012) Basic information about Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in drinking water.
  239. Van A, Rochman CM, Flores EM, Hill KL, Vargas E, Vargas SA, Hoh E (2012) Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California. Chemosphere 86(3):258–263Google Scholar
  240. Velander K, Mocogni M (1999) Beach litter sampling strategies: is there a “best” method? Mar Pollut Bull 38(12):1134–1140Google Scholar
  241. Velander KA, Mocogni M (1998) Maritime litter and sewage contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh—a comparative study. Mar Pollut Bull 36(5):385–389Google Scholar
  242. Vieyra H, Aguilar-Mendez MA, San Martin-Martinez E (2013) Study of biodegradation evolution during composting of polyethylene-starch blends using scanning electron microscopy. J Appl Poly Sci 127(2):845–853Google Scholar
  243. Vikelsoe J, Thomsen M, Carlsen L (2002) Phthalates and nonylphenols in profiles of differently dressed soils. Sci Total Environ 296(1–3):105–116Google Scholar
  244. Volova TG, Gladyshev MI, Trusova MY, Zhila NO (2007) Degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates in eutrophic reservoir. Polym Degrad Stabil 92(4):580–586Google Scholar
  245. Volova TG, Boyandin AN, Vasil’ev AD, Karpov VA, Kozhevnikov IV, Prudnikova SV, Rudnev VP, Xuan BB, Dung VVT, Gitel’zon II (2011) Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in the South China Sea and identification of PHA-degrading bacteria. Microbiology 80(2):252–260Google Scholar
  246. Voutsa D, Hartmann P, Schaffner C, Giger W (2006) Benzotriazoles, alkylphenols and bisphenol a in municipal wastewaters and in the Glatt River, Switzerland. Environ Sci Pollut Res 13(5):333–341Google Scholar
  247. Waaijers SL, Kong D, Hendriks HS, de Wit CA, Cousins IT, Westerink RHS, Leonards PEG, Kraak MHS, Admiraal W, Voogt WA, Parsons JR (2013) Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 222:1–71Google Scholar
  248. Walker TR, Grant J, Archambault MC (2006) Accumulation of marine debris on an intertidal beach in an urban park (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia). Water Qual Res J Can 41(3):256–262Google Scholar
  249. Wang L, Ying GG, Zhao JL, Liu S, Yang B, Zhou LJ, Tao R, Su HC (2011) Assessing estrogenic activity in surface water and sediment of the Liao River system in northeast China using combined chemical and biological tools. Environ Pollut 159(1):148–156Google Scholar
  250. Watters DL, Yoklavich MM, Love MS, Schroeder DM (2010) Assessing marine debris in deep seafloor habitats off California. Mar Pollut Bull 60(1):131–138Google Scholar
  251. Watts MM, Pascoe D, Carroll K (2003) Exposure to 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A-effects on larval moulting and mouthpart structure of Chironomus riparius. Ecotoxicol Environl Safe 54(2):207–215Google Scholar
  252. Wei CL, Rowe GT, Nunnally CC, Wicksten MK (2012) Anthropogenic “Litter” and macrophyte detritus in the deep Northern Gulf of Mexico. Mar Pollut Bull 64(5):966–973Google Scholar
  253. Wibe AE, Fjeld E, Rosenqvist G, Jenssen BM (2004) Post exposure effects of DDE and BBP on feeding behaviour in threespine stickleback. Ecotox Environ Safe 57(2):213–219Google Scholar
  254. Williams AT, Simmons SL (1996) The degradation of plastic litter in rivers: implication for beaches. J Coast Conserv 2:63–72Google Scholar
  255. Williams AT, Simmons SL (1999) Sources of riverine litter: the River Taff, South Wales, UK. Water Air Soil Pollut 112(1–2):197–216Google Scholar
  256. Williams AT, Tudor DT (2001) Litter burial and exhumation: spatial and temporal distribution on a cobble pocket beach. Mar Pollut Bull 42(11):1031–1039Google Scholar
  257. Wintgens T, Gallenkemper M, Melin T (2003) Occurrence and removal of endocrine disrupters in landfill leachate treatment plants. Water Sci Technol 48(3):127–134Google Scholar
  258. Xu G, Wang Q-H, Gu Q-B, Cao Y-Z, Du X-M, Li F-S (2006) Contamination characteristics and degradation behavior of low-density polyethylene film residues in typical farmland soils of China. J Environ Sci Health Part B-Pestic Contam Agric Wastes 41(2):189–199Google Scholar
  259. Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A, Shiraishi H, Nakasugi O (2001) Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates. Chemosphere 42(4):415–418Google Scholar
  260. Ying GG, Kookana RS, Kumar A, Mortimer M (2009) Occurrence and implications of estrogens and xenoestrogens in sewage effluents and receiving waters from South East Queensland. Sci Total Environ 407(18):5147–5155Google Scholar
  261. Yuan SY, Liu C, Liao CS, Chang BV (2002) Occurrence and microbial degradation of phthalate esters in Taiwan river sediments. Chemosphere 49(10):1295–1299Google Scholar
  262. Yuwatini E, Hata N, Taguchi S (2006) Behavior of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate discharged from domestic waste water into aquatic environment. J Environ Monit 8(1):191–196Google Scholar
  263. Zbyszewski M, Corcoran PL (2011) Distribution and degradation of fresh water plastic particles along the beaches of Lake Huron, Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut 220(1–4):365–372Google Scholar
  264. Zeng F, Cui KY, Xie ZY, Liu M, Li YJ, Lin YJ, Zeng ZX, Li FB (2008) Occurrence of phthalate esters in water and sediment of urban lakes in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China. Environ Int 34(3):372–380Google Scholar
  265. Zhang BZ, Guan YF, Li SM, Zeng EY (2009) Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air and precipitation of the Pearl River Delta, South China: annual washout ratios and depositional rates. Environ Sci Technol 43(24):9142–9147Google Scholar
  266. Zhao JL, Ying GG, Wang L, Yang JF, Yang XB, Yang LH, Li X (2009) Determination of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals and acidic pharmaceuticals in surface water of the Pearl Rivers in South China by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Sci Total Environ 407(2):962–974Google Scholar
  267. Zhou D, Wang H, Zhang J, Gao X, Zhao W, Zheng Y (2010) Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exposure induces oxidative damage in testes of adult rats. Syst Biol Reprod Med 56(6):413–419Google Scholar
  268. Zubris KAV, Richards BK (2005) Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge. Environ Pollut 138(2):201–211Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Lambert
    • 1
  • Chris Sinclair
    • 2
  • Alistair Boxall
    • 3
  1. 1.The University of YorkYorkUK
  2. 2.Alistair Boxall Environment DepartmentUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.Chris Sinclair The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand HuttonYorkUK

Personalised recommendations