Ryanodine and Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors/Ca2+ Release Channels in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

Chapter

Abstract

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are the most important Ca2+ release channels on the sarcoplasmic (or endoplasmic) reticulum (SR) in almost all types of cells. In the past several decades, the studies of RyRs and IP3Rs have greatly facilitated our understanding of the physiological functions and pathological mechanisms for various diseases including heart failure, arrhythmias, myopathy, and seizure. Similarly, their important roles have been explored in airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). These two receptors control intracellular Ca2+ release and modulate extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby playing an essential role in cell contraction, relaxation, proliferation, migration, metabolism, and, ultimately, cell fate. The abnormality of Ca2+ signaling in airway SMCs may contribute to the development of multiple lung diseases, notably asthma. Concomitantly, many regulators, including Ca2+ itself, calmodulin, protein kinases, FK506-binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6), cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR), and redox status, are involved in the regulation of Ca2+ signaling and, thus, the physiological function and pathological alterations. The two SR Ca2+ release channels may also directly or indirectly interact with plasmalemmal and mitochondrial ion channels such as transient receptor potential cation, big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+, Ca2+-activated Cl, and other channels, providing positive or negative feedback mechanisms to control Ca2+ signaling and cellular functions.

Keywords

Ryanodine receptor Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor Intracellular Ca2+ release Extracellular Ca2+ influx Big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel Ca2+-activated Cl channel 

Abbreviations

2-APB

2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate

ACh

Acetylcholine

BKCa

Big-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

cADPR

Cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose

CaMKII

Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

CICR

Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

ClCa

Ca2+-activated Cl channel

CPVT

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

DAG

Diacylglycerol

FKBP12.6

FK506-binding protein 12.6

GPX1

Glutathione peroxidase-1

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

IL-13

Interleukin-13

IP3Rs

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors

IRAG

cGMP kinase substrate

LTCCs

L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

LTD4

Leukotriene D4

M3R

Muscarinic M3 receptor

mACh

Methacholine

MLC

Myosin light chain

MLCK

Myosin light chain kinase

MLCP

Myosin light chain phosphatase

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NCX

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

NO

Nitric oxide

NSCCs

Nonselective cation channels

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol 4 5-bisphosphate

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PKG

cGMP-dependent protein kinase

PLC

Phospholipase C

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RyR

Ryanodine receptor

SERCA

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase

SMC

Smooth muscle cell

SOCE

Store-operated calcium entry

SR

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

STIC

Spontaneous transient inward current

STOC

Spontaneous transient outward current

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TRP

Transient receptor potential channel

VICR

Voltage-induced Ca2+ release

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Cardiovascular Sciences (MC-8)Albany Medical CollegeAlbanyUSA

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