Advertisement

Media Behavior and Culture

  • Marieke de Mooij
Chapter

Abstract

Differences in human communication, such as orality and literacy, are reflected in media usage. Cultural dimensions can also explain variation. Newspaper readership varies with wealth and power distance. Heavy TV viewing is found in less wealthy countries. There are even stronger differences in usage of hybrid media such as the mobile phone and the Internet. Wealth and individualism are the determinants of the structure of international hyperlink flows, and social media are used most in collectivistic cultures. On the Internet subjects from low-context cultures search more for information and facts, while subjects from high-context cultures are more interested in social interaction. Worldwide usage, content, and form of social media vary along with culturally defined communication habits. An important difference is with respect to how people present themselves, the degree of self-disclosure, and several psychosocial effects. Predictions of the new media that they would bring democracy around the world have proved wrong.

Keywords

Mobile Phone Social Medium Internet Usage Power Distance Interpersonal Communication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature

  1. Akpan-Obong, P. (2010). Unintended outcomes in information and communication technology adoption: A micro-level analysis of usage in context. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 45(2), 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al Nashmi, E., Cleary, J., Molleda, J. C., & McAdams, M. (2010). Internet political discussions in the Arab world: A look at online forums from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan. International Communication Gazette, 72(8), 719–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albarran, A. B., & Hutton, B. (2009). Young Latinos use of mobile phones: A cross-cultural study. http://spanishmedia.unt.edu/english/downloads/bibliography/cellphonestudypaper.pdf. Accessed 10 Dec 2011.
  4. Albarran, A. B., Dyer, C., Hutton, B., & Valentine, A. (2010, August 4–7). Social media and Young Latinos: A cross-cultural examination. Paper presented to the Media Management and Economics Division at the 2010 AEJMC Conference, Denver, Colorado. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p433602_index.html. Accessed 25 Feb 2012.
  5. Alzouma, G. (2008). Everyday use of mobile phones in Niger. Africa Media Review, 16(2), 49–69.Google Scholar
  6. American Community Survey. (2006). U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  7. Archambault, J. S. (2011). Breaking up ‘because of the phone’ and the transformative potential of information in Southern Mozambique. New Media & Society, 13(3), 444–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. AVG Technologies. (2011, June 1). Digital diaries: Digital playground. www.frankbaker.com/mediause.htm. Accessed 6 Mar 2012.
  9. Barnett, G. A., & Sung, E. (2005). Culture and the structure of the international hyperlink network. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1), article 11. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/v0111/issue1/barnett.html
  10. Baron, N. S., & Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2010). Cross-cultural patterns in mobile-phone use: Public space and reachability in Sweden, the USA and Japan. New Media & Society, 12(1), 13–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, G. (2009). How the Internet impacts on international news: Exploring paradoxes of the most global medium in a time of ‘hyperlocalism’. International Communication Gazette, 71(5), 355–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boase, J., Horrigan, J. B., Wellman, B., & Rainie, L. (2006). The strength of Internet ties. Pew Internet & American life project, Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2006/PIP_Internet_ties.pdf.pdf. Accessed 23 Apr 2013.
  13. Bose, R. (2011). In Malaysia, social media defies censorship. Agence France-Presse. http://apdforum.com/en_GB/article/rmiap/articles/print/departments/mixed_media/2011/01/01/feature-01. Accessed 1 Jan 2011.
  14. Bringué, X., Sádaba, C., & Tolsá, J. (2010). La Generación Interactiva en Iberoamérica 2010. Niños y adolescentes ante las pantallas. Fundación Telefónica: Colección Generaciones Interactivas.Google Scholar
  15. Bronzwaer, S. (2013, March 12–13). De tijd van alles delen is voorbij. NRC Handelsblad, p. 31.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, S. W. (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of perceptions and uses of mobile telephony. New Media & Society, 9(2), 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castells, M. (2009). Communication power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chan, K. (2010). Youth and consumption. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  19. Checkfacebook.com. (2010). Database on Facebook usage.Google Scholar
  20. Cho, H., Rivera-Sánchez, M., & Lim, S. S. (2009). A multinational study on online privacy: Global concerns and local responses. New Media & Society, 11(3), 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Mooij, M. (2011). Consumer behavior and culture. Consequences for global marketing and advertising (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. De Souza e Silva, D., Sutko, D. M., Salis, F. A., & De Souza e Silva, C. (2011). Mobile phone appropriation in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New Media & Society, 13(3), 411–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Waal, E., & Schoenbach, K. (2010). News sites’ position in the mediascape: Uses, evaluations and media displacement effects over time. New Media & Society, 12(3), 477–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Do, J., Kim, D., Kim, D. Y., & Kim, E.-m. (2009). When mobile phones meet television…: An FGI analysis of mobile broadcasting users in Korea. Media, Culture & Society, 31(4), 669–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elvestad, E., & Blekesaune, A. (2008). Newspaper readers in Europe: A multilevel study of individual and national differences. European Journal of Communication, 23(4), 425–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Etling, B., Kelly, J., Faris, R., & Palfrey, J. (2010). Mapping the Arabic blogosphere: politics and dissent online. New Media & Society, 12(8), 1225–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eurobarometer. (2000a). How Europeans see themselves. Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission Google Scholar
  28. Eurobarometer. (2000b). Measuring information society (Report 53). Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission.Google Scholar
  29. Eurobarometer. (2005). Social values, science and technology. Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission. EBS 225.Google Scholar
  30. Eurobarometer. (2007). European cultural values. Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission. EBS 278.Google Scholar
  31. Eurobarometer. (2008). E-communications household survey. Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission. EBS 293.Google Scholar
  32. Eurobarometer. (2011). E-communications household survey. Brussels: Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission. EBS 362.Google Scholar
  33. Fundacion Telefónica. (2007). Medios de Comunicacion Annuario de Medios.Google Scholar
  34. García-Montes, J. M., Caballero-Muñoz, D., & Pérez-Álvarez, M. (2006). Changes in the self resulting from the use of mobile phones. Media, Culture & Society, 28(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  36. Gozzi, R., Jr. (1992). Mass media effects in high- and low-context cultures. In F. Korzenny & S. Ting-Toomey (Eds.), Mass media effects across cultures (pp. 55–66). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Hakoama, M., & Hakoyama, S. (2011). The impact of cell phone use on social networking and development among college students. The American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, 15, 1–2. http://aabss.org/Journal2011/05HakoamaFinal.pdf. Accessed 26 Feb 2012.
  38. Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hao, Z., Jianqiang, T., & Shan, H. (2008). The diffusion of mobile phones in China. A new medium with Chinese characteristics. Media Asia, 35(3), 144–147.Google Scholar
  40. Hensen, C. (2012, March 5). Digitale vijand van Poetin. NRC Handelsblad.Google Scholar
  41. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations. Software of the mind (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Houston Santhanam, L., & Rosenstiel, T. (2011). The state of the news media 2011. Pew Research Center’s project for excellence in journalism. http://stateofthemedia.org/2011/mobile-survey/international-newspaper-economics/. Accessed 7 Mar 2012.
  43. Ioffe, J. (2010, December 29). Facebook’s Russian campaign. Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/11_02/b4210032487137_page_2.htm. Accessed 10 Jan 2011.
  44. IP-network, data from ip-network.com. http://www.ip-network.com/rd/assets/file_asset/Viewing_Time_Individual.pdf. Accessed 17 Nov 2011.
  45. Ipsos. (2010). Young Asians survey. Received from Susanna Lam on March 20, 2011.Google Scholar
  46. Ishii, K. (2009). Mobile Internet use in Japan. Social consequences of technology convergence. Media Asia, 36(4), 201–209.Google Scholar
  47. Ito, Y. (1993). The future of political communication research: A Japanese perspective. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ito, M. (2003). A new set of social rules for a newly wireless society. Japan Media Review. http://www.ojr.org/japan/wireless/1043770650.php. Accessed 9 Dec 2011.
  49. International Telecommunications Union [ITU]. (2011). Data for all years to be accessed from http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/default.aspx. Data for households with computers 2010 found in key ICT indicators, from http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx
  50. Jeong, Y., & Mahmood, R. (2011). Reading the world’s mind: Political, socioeconomic and cultural approaches to understanding worldwide Internet search queries. International Communication Gazette, 73(3), 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jinghua, H., & Xuerui, Y. (2009). Influences on use of the mobile phone for Internet connectivity in China. Media Asia, 36(4), 210–215.Google Scholar
  52. Johnson, S. (2009, June 5) How twitter will change the way we live. Time. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,190260,00.html. Accessed 12 June 2011.
  53. Jouët, J., Vedel, T., & Comby, J.-B. (2011). Political information and interpersonal conversations in a multimedia environment: A quantitative and qualitative examination of information practices in France. European Journal of Communication, 26(4), 361–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jowell, R., et al. (2003/2004/2005). European social survey (Technical report). London: Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University.Google Scholar
  55. Kennedy, D. (2008). Political blogs: Teaching us lessons about community (Nieman reports). http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reportsitem.aspx?id=100022. Accessed 11 Apr 2013.
  56. Kim, K.-H., & Yun, H. (2007). Cying for me, cying for us: Relational dialectics in a Korean social network site. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 15. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/kim.yun.html
  57. Ko, H., Roberts, M. S., & Cho, C. H. (2006). Cross-cultural differences in motivations and perceived interactivity: A comparative study of American and Korean Internet users. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 28(2), 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Korenaga, R., & Komuro, H. (2009). Going out of tune? Use of mobile phone TV among Japanese youth. Media Asia, 36(4), 194–200.Google Scholar
  59. Kraidy, M. M. (2010). Reality television and Arab politics. Contention in public life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Kriem, M. S. (2009). Mobile telephony in Morocco: A changing sociality. Media, Culture & Society, 31(4), 617–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krotz, F., & Hasebrink, U. (1998). The analysis of people-meter data: Individual patterns of viewing behavior and viewers’ cultural backgrounds. European Journal of Communication Research, 23, 151–174.Google Scholar
  62. La Ferle, C., Edwards, S. M., & Mizuno, Y. (2002). Internet diffusion in Japan: Cultural considerations. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(2), 65–79.Google Scholar
  63. Lexander, K. V. (2011). Texting and African language literature. New Media & Society, 13(3), 427–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li, S. (2010). The online public space and popular ethos in China. Media, Culture & Society, 32(1), 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li, Y., & Lin, G. (2012). Exploring the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations in blogging: A survey on Hong Kong University students. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 1(4), 96–115.Google Scholar
  66. Lilleker, D. G., Koc-Michalska, K., Schweitzer, E. J., Jacunski, M., Jackson, N., & Vedel, T. (2011). Informing, engaging, mobilizing or interacting: Searching for a European model of web campaigning. European Journal of Communication, 26(3), 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ling, R., & Horst, H. A. (2011). Mobile communication in the global south. New Media & Society, 13(3), 363–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full findings. London: LSE, EU Kids Online.Google Scholar
  69. Lonkila, M., & Gladarev, B. (2008). Social networks and cellphone use in Russia: Local consequences of global communication technology. New Media & Society, 10(2), 273–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lunden, I. (2013, March 26). BBC study confirms tablets’ growing role in TV consumption, but also that TV remains supreme. http://techcrunch.com/2013/03/26/bbc-study-confirms-tablets-growing-role-in-tv-consumption-but-also-that-tv-remains-supreme/. Accessed 16 Apr 2013.
  71. Madianou, M., & Miller, D. (2011). Mobile phone parenting: Reconfiguring relationships between Filipina migrant mothers and their left-behind children. New Media & Society, 13(3), 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mareck, M. (1999, December). Research watch. M&M Europe, p. 47Google Scholar
  73. Media Literacy Clearinghouse. (2012). Media use statistics. www.frankbaker.com.htm. Accessed 6 Mar 2012.
  74. Moore, T. (2010, April 13). Facebook under attack in Germany over privacy. Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1981524,00.html. Accessed 11 June 2011.
  75. Morozov, E. (2011). The net delusion. The dark side of internet freedom. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  76. Muk, A. (2007). Consumers’ intentions to opt in to SMS advertising: A cross-national study of young Americans and Koreans. International Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 177–198.Google Scholar
  77. Murphy, J., & Scharl, A. (2007). An investigation of global versus local online branding. International Marketing Review, 24(3), 297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nielsen. (2011). Time spent social networking. www.frankbaker.com/mediause.htm. Accessed 6 Mar 2011.
  79. OECD. (2009). Society at a glance. Chapter 2, Special focus: Measuring leisure in OECD countries. OECD Social Indicators, p. 35.Google Scholar
  80. Ofcom. (2010). The international communications market 2010. London: Ofcom. http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/cmr/753567/icmr/ICMR_2010.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb 2012.
  81. Palackal, A., Mbatia, P. N., Dzorgbo, D.-B., Duque, R. B., Ynalvez, M. A., & Shrum, W. M. (2011). Are mobile phones changing social networks? A longitudinal study of core networks in Kerala. New Media & Society, 13(3), 391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pasquier, D., Buzzi, C., d’Haenens, L., & Sjöberg, U. (1998). Family lifestyles and media use patterns. An analysis of domestic media among Flemish, French, Italian and Swedish children and teenagers. European Journal of Communication, 13, 503–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Peng, T.-Q., & Zhu, J. J. H. (2010). A game of win-win or win-lose? Revisiting the internet’s influence on sociability and use of traditional media. New media & society, 13(4), 568–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Phillips, S. (2010, August 4). Mobile Internet more popular in China than in U.S. Nielsenwire. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/global/mobile-internet-more-popular-in-china-than-in-u-s/. Accessed 25 Feb 2012.
  85. Roper Starch. (1997). The global marketplace. The Public Pulse, (10,11) 12. Roper Starch Worldwide Inc., p. 7.Google Scholar
  86. Rozhnov, K. (2011, March 23). Social media capitalize on Russia’s history of censorship. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12834226. Accessed 10 Apr 2011.
  87. Sani, M. A. M., & Knocks, T. Z. (2010, July 5–8). Democratization in Malaysia: The impact of social media in the 2008 general election. In E. Morrell & M. D. Barr (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Adelaide. http://asaa.asn.au/ASAA2010/reviewed_papers/. Accessed 24 Apr 2013.
  88. Sawers, P. (2011). Why Twitter outguns Facebook in Japan. TNW Conference 2011. http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2011/02/02/why-twitter-outguns-facebook-in-japan/. Accessed 25 Apr 2011.
  89. Schroeder, R. (2010). Mobile phones and the inexorable advance of multimodal connectedness. New Media & Society, 12(1), 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sey, A. (2011). ‘We use it different, different’: Making sense of trends in mobile phone use in Ghana. New Media & Society, 13(3), 375–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sima, Y., & Pugsley, P. C. (2010). The rise of a ‘Me Culture’ in postsocialist China: Youth, individualism and identity creation in the blogosphere. International Communication Gazette, 72(3), 287–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sifry, D. (2006, May 1) State of the blogosphere, April 2006 Part 2: On language and tagging. http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000433.html. Accessed 29 Apr 2013.
  93. Sooryamoorthy, R., Miller, B. P., & Shrum, W. (2008). Untangling the technology cluster: Mobile telephony, internet use and the location of social ties. New Media & Society, 10(5), 729–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Specht, N. (2010). How social media is used in Germany, China and Brazil. http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/5948/3-Social-Media-Lessons-For-Global-Marketers.aspx. Accessed 11 June 2011.
  95. Su, M. N., Wang, Y., Mark, G., Aiyelokun, G., & Nakano, T. (2005). A bosom buddy afar brings a distant land near: Are bloggers a global community? Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Communities and Technologies (C&T 2005). Milan: Springer.Google Scholar
  96. Suess, D., Suoninen, A., Garitaonandia, C., Juaristi, P., Koikkalainen, R., & Oleaga, J. A. (1998). Media use and the relationships of children and teenagers with their peer groups: A study of Finnish, Spanish and Swiss cases. European Journal of Communication, 13(4), 521–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Takahashi, T. (2010). MySpace or Mixi? Japanese engagement with SNS (social networking sites) in the global age. New Media & Society, 12(3), 453–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. TNS Digital Life. (2008). http://www.wpp.com/wpp/marketing/digital/digital-life-digital-world/. Accessed 11 Oct 2010.
  99. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2009). http://www.uis.unesco.org/literacy/. Accessed 7 Aug 2013.
  100. Van Belleghem, S. (2010). Social media around the world. InSites Consulting. www.slideshare.net/stevenvanbelleghem/social-networks-around-the-world-2010. Accessed 22 Feb 2012.
  101. Van Belleghem, S., Thijs, D., & De Ruijck, T. (2012). Social media around the world. InSites Consulting. http://www.slideshare.net/InSitesConsulting/social-media-around-the-world-2012-by-insites-consulting. Accessed 16 Apr 2013.
  102. Vasalou, A., Joinson, A. N., & Courvoisier, D. (2010). Cultural differences, experience with social networks and the nature of “true commitment” in Facebook. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 68, 719–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Veilbrief, A. (2007, January). Chattend de puberteit door (Chatting through adolescence). NRC Handelsblad Maandblad, pp. 20–25.Google Scholar
  104. Von Tetzchner, J. (2011). State of the mobile web, April 2011. http://www.opera.com/smw/2011/04/ Accessed 12 Nov 2011.
  105. Vuylsteke, A., Wen, Z., Baesens, B., & Poelmans, J. (2010). Consumers’ online information search: A cross-cultural study between China and Western Europe. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 24(4), 209–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wallis, C. (2011). Mobile phones without guarantees: The promises of technology and the contingencies of culture. New Media & Society, 13(3), 471–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wei, R., & Jinhua, H. (2009). Mobile phone as third screen? An adoption study of mobile TV in China. Media Asia, 36(4), 187–193.Google Scholar
  108. Westlund, O. (2010). New(s) functions for the mobile: a cross-cultural study. New Media & Society, 12(1), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. World Bank Development Indicators. (2010). Mobile cellular phone subscriptions per 100 people worldwide. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2. Accessed 3 Sept 2011.
  110. Zha, W., & Perlmutter, D. D. (2010). Blogs as stealth dissent? “Eighteen Touch Dog Newspaper” and the tactics, ambiguity, and limits of Internet resistance in China. In G. J. Golan, T. J. Johnson, & W. Wanta (Eds.), International media communication in a global age (pp. 277–295). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marieke de Mooij
    • 1
  1. 1.Burgh-HaamstedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations