Mass Media, Journalism, Society, and Culture

  • Marieke de Mooij


The mass media and journalists do not operate in a vacuum; they are part of the social environment. With varying political systems and involvement of publics, the role of media, media systems, and journalism varies. Media systems can be compared by degree of state and commercial influences, degree of press freedom, state or commercial censorship, or self-censorship. So-called journalism universals like transparency, free speech, journalistic independence, and truthful and fair reporting are not shared and understood in the same way around the world. A Western confrontational reporting style is not appropriate in many countries around the world. A few functions of the media such as gatekeeping and framing may be universal, but the type of news selection or frame depends on geographical, political, and economic characteristics of countries. This also applies to international news flows. The Internet amplifies and modifies existing patterns of governmental conflict and cooperation.


News Story News Agency Power Holder Press Freedom Public Service Broadcasting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marieke de Mooij
    • 1
  1. 1.Burgh-HaamstedeThe Netherlands

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