Advertisement

Catastrophic Slope Processes in Glaciated Zones of Mountainous Regions

  • Alexander StromEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Catastrophic slope failures that occur in glaciated zones of mountain ranges at high altitudes can be considered as landslides in cold regions, since ice plays an important role in their origination and emplacement. Case studies of the XX Century rock avalanche that fell onto the glacier and of the extraordinary prehistoric ice-rock avalanche are described briefly. They demonstrate that presence of large quantities of ice in the glaciated zones of high mountains results in significant masking of the origin of debris accumulations that could be found either on glaciers or at the feet of heavily glaciated slopes.

Keywords

Glacier Landslide Rock avalanche Ice-rock avalanche 

Notes

Acknowledgments

My study in the Alay valley was performed within the frames of the UNU PALM Project “Sustainable Land Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountains in Central Asia”. During the 2009 field trip in this region I worked together with Mr. Alexander Meleshko, who passed away prematurely in 2010.

References

  1. Delaney KB, Evans SG (2008) Application of digital cartographic techniques in the characterization and analysis of catastrophic landslides; the 1997 mount munday rock avalanche, British Columbia. In: Locat J, Perret D, Turmel D, Demers D, Leroueil S (eds) Proceedings of the 4th Canadian conference on geohazards: from causes to management. Presse de l’Université Laval, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  2. Evans SG, Clague JJ (1988) Catastrophic rock avalanches in glacial environments: proceedings, 5th international symposium on landslides, vol 2, pp 1153–1158, Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Evans SG, Tutubalina OV, Drobyshev VN, Chernomorets SS, McDougall S, Petrakov DA, Hungr O (2009a) Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2002. Geomorphology 105:314–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Evans SG, Bishop NF, Fidel Smoll L, Valderrama Murillo P, Delaney KB, Oliver-Smith A (2009b) A re-examination of the mechanism and human impact of catastrophic mass flows originating on Nevado Huascarán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru in 1962 and 1970. Eng Geol 108:96–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hewitt K (1988) Catastrophic landslide deposits in the Karakorum Himalaya. Science 242:64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hewitt K (2002) Styles of rock avalanche depositional complexes conditioned by very rugged terrain, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan. In: Evans SG, DeGraff JV (eds) Catastrophic landslides: effects, occurrence, and mechanisms, vol XV. Reviews in Engineering Geology, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp 345–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huggel C (2008) Recent extreme slope failures in glacial environments: effects of thermal perturbation. Quatern Sci Rev. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.06.007 Google Scholar
  8. Jibson RW, Harp EL, Schulz W, Keefer DK (2006) Large rock avalanches triggered by the M 7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002. Eng Geol 83:144–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaab A, Wessels R, Haeberli W, Huggel C, Kargel JS, Khalisa SJS (2003) Rapid ASTER imaging facilitates timely assessment of glacier hazards and disasters. EOS 84(13):117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelly M (1980) A prehistoric catastrophic rock avalanche at Holsteinsborg, West Greenland. Bull Geol Soc Denmark 28:73–79Google Scholar
  11. McColl ST (2012) Paraglacial rock-slope stability. Geomorphology 153–154:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McSaveney MJ (1975) Sherman Glacier rock avalanche of 1964: the emplacement and subsequent effects on the glacier beneath it. PhD thesis, Ohio State University, p 426Google Scholar
  13. McSaveney MJ (1978) Sherman Glacier rock avalanche, Alaska, U.S.A. In: Voight B (ed) Rockslides and avalanches, vol 1, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp 197–258Google Scholar
  14. McSaveney MJ, Downes G (2002) Application of landslide seismology to some New Zealand rock avalanches. In: Rybar J, Stembek J, Wagner P (eds) Landslides. Balkema, pp 649–654Google Scholar
  15. Nikonov AA, Vakov AV, Veselov IA (1983) Seismotectonics and earthquakes of the convergence zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan. Moscow, Nauka Publishers, p 240 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. Petrakov DA, Chernomorets SS, Evans SG, Tutubalina OV (2008) Catastrophic glacial multi-phase mass movements: a special type of glacial hazard. Adv Geosci 14:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reznichenko NV (2012) Rock avalanches on glaciers: processes and implications. PhD Thesis, University of Canterbury, p 288Google Scholar
  18. Reznichenko N, Davies T, Shulmeister J, McSaveney M (2010) Effects of debris on ice-surface 181 melting rates: an experimental study. J Glaciol 56(197):384–394Google Scholar
  19. Schulz WH, Harp EL, Jibson RW (2008) Characteristics of large rock avalanches triggered by the November 3, 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska, USA. In: Chen Z, Zhang J, Li Z, Wu F, Ho K (eds) Landslides and engineered slopes, from the past to the future, vol 2, pp 1447–1453Google Scholar
  20. Shugar DH, Clague JJ (2011) The sedimentology and geomorphology of rock avalanche deposits on glaciers. Sedimentology 58(7):1762–1783Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geodynamic Research Centre—Branch of JSCHydroproject InstituteMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations