Advertisement

Using Protean Career Attitude to Facilitate a Positive Approach to Unemployment

  • Lea WatersEmail author
  • Jon Briscoe
  • Douglas T. Hall
Chapter

Abstract

The rise in unemployment rates associated with the global financial crisis mean that a timely understanding is needed of the ways in which a person’s career attitude influences their reactions to job loss. Much of the research into unemployment has focused on what people lose during unemployment rather than what people can potentially gain during unemployment. In this paper, we deliberately adopt a “positive deviance” approach (Marsh et al., British Medical Journal, 329:1177–1179, 2004) to unemployment and study the attitudes and behaviors that enable people to find successful solutions during job loss. Specifically, we suggest that protean career attitude is a positive factor that can be built upon during unemployment to enhance successful re-employment. The chapter outlines a 6-month longitudinal study that assesses the influence of protean career attitude on self esteem, job search, re-employment, career growth and job improvement. By studying the positive processes through which people positively deviate during unemployment, we can offer unemployed people new ways to create change for themselves.

Keywords

Protean career attitude Unemployment Re-employment Job search Self-esteem Positive approach Career growth Job improvement 

References

  1. Arthur, M., Inkson, K., & Pringle, J. (1999). The new careers: Individual action and economic change. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, J., & Rhodes, V. (1993). The grief process and job loss: A cross-sectional study. British Journal of Psychology, 84(3), 395–410. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1993.tb02491.x..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedeian, A. G., Kemery, E. R., & Pizzolatto, A. B. (1991). Career commitment and expected utility of present job as predictors of turnover intentions and turnover behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39(3), 331–343. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(91)90042-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & DeMuth, R. L. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30–47. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2005.09.003..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013, February 13). Employment situation summary. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm. Accessed 13 Feb 2013.
  6. Burke, R. J. (1986). Reemployment on a poorer job after a plant closing. Psychological Reports, 58(2), 559–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of research in personality, 38(2), 150–163. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00058-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butts, D. (1997). Joblessness, pain, power, pathology and promise. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 10(2), 111–129. doi:10.1108/09534819710160781..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cassidy, T. (2001). Self-categorization, coping and psychological health among unemployed mid-career executives. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14(4), 303–315. doi:10.1080/09515070110102800..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eby, L. T., & Buch, K. (1995). Job loss as career growth: Responses to involuntary career transitions. The Career Development Quarterly, 44(1), 26–42. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.1995.tb00526.x..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A. J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2004). Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational behavior, 65(1), 14–38. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.10.005..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Granrose, C. S., & Baccili, P. A. (2006). Do psychological contracts include boundaryless or protean careers? Career Development International, 11(2), 163–182. doi:10.1108/13620430610651903..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hammarström, A., & Janlert, U. (1997). Nervous and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of youth unemployment—selection or exposure? Journal of Adolescence, 20(3), 293–305. doi:10.1006/jado.1997.0086..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall, D. T. (2004). The protean career: A quarter-century journey. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2003.10.006..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1996). The new protean career: Psychological success and the path with a heart. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 14–45). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, D. T., & Moss, J. E. (1998). The new protean career contract: Helping organizations and employees adapt. Organizational Dynamics; Organizational Dynamics. doi:10.1016/S0090-2616(98)90012-2.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, D. T., Briscoe, J. P., & Kram, K. E. (1997). Identity, values and learning in the protean career. In C. L. Cooper & S. E. Jackson (Eds.), Creating tomorrow’s organizations. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Jones, L. P. (1989). A typology of adaptations to unemployment. Journal of Employment Counseling, 26(2), 50–59. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1920.1989.tb00933.x..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Joseph, L. M., & Greenberg, M. A. (2001). The effects of a career transition program on reemployment success in laid-off professionals. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53(3), 169. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.53.3.169..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Keyes, C. L. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 43, 207–222Google Scholar
  22. Kinicki, A. J., & Latack, J. C. (1990). Explication of the construct of coping with involuntary job loss. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36(3), 339–360. doi:10.1016/0001-8791(90)90036-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kopelman, S., Feldman, E. R., McDaniel, D. M., & Hall, D. T. (2012). Mindfully negotiating a career with a heart. Organizational Dynamics, 41(2), 163. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2012.01.010..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Langer, E. J. (1989). Mindfulness. Addison-Wesley, Addison Wesley LongmanGoogle Scholar
  25. Langer, E. J. (2009). Counter clockwise: Mindful health and the power of possibility. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  26. Latack, J. C., & Dozier, J. B. (1986). After the ax falls: Job loss as a career transition. Academy of Management Review, 375–392. doi:10.2307/258467.Google Scholar
  27. LipsWiersma, M., & Hall, D. T. (2007). Organizational career development is not dead: A case study on managing the new career during organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(6), 771–792. doi:10.1002/job.446..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leana, C. R., & Feldman, D. C. (1995). Finding new jobs after a plant closing: Antecedents and outcomes of the occurrence and quality of reemployment. Human Relations, 48(12), 1381–1401. doi:10.1177/001872679504801201..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marsh, M., Schroeder, D., Dearden, K., Sternin, J & Sternin, M. (2004). The power of positive deviance. British Medical Journal, 329, 1177–1179.Google Scholar
  30. McKee-Ryan, F., Song, Z., Wanberg, C. R., & Kinicki, A. J. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 53. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.53..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Messer, B. J., & Harter, S. (1986). Manual for the adult self-perception profile. University of DenverGoogle Scholar
  32. Mirvis, P. H., & Hall, D. T. (1994). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. Journal of organizational behavior, 15(4), 365–380. doi:10.1002/job.4030150406..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Niederhoffer, K., & Pennebaker, J. (2009). Sharing one’s story: On the benefits of writing or talking about emotional experiences. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed, pp. 59–71). New York: Oxford University press.Google Scholar
  34. Niessen, C. (2006). Age and learning during unemployment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(6), 771–792. doi:10.1002/job.400..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Noh, Y. H. (2009). Does unemployment increase suicide rates? The OECD panel evidence. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(4), 575–582. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2009.04.003..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Office for National Statistics. (2013, January 23). Labour market statistics, January 2013. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/lms/labour-market-statistics/january-2013/index.html.
  37. Parker, P., & Arthur, M. B. (2000). Careers, organizing, and community. In M. Peiperl, M. Arthur, R. Goffee & T. Morris (Eds.), Career frontiers: New conceptions of working lives (pp. 99–121). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 264–282. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2009.01.001..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pratt, M. G., Rockmann, K. W., & Kaufmann, J. B. (2006). Constructing professional identity: The role of work and identity learning cycles in the customization of identity among medical residents. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 235–262. doi:10.5465/AMJ.2006.20786060..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Romeyn, J. (1992). Flexible working time: Part-time and casual employment. Australian Government Publishing ServiceGoogle Scholar
  41. Rousseau, D. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: understanding written and unwritten agreements. Sage Publications, IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  42. Vansteenkiste, V., Lens, W., Witte, H., & Feather, N. T. (2005). Understanding unemployed people’s job search behaviour, unemployment experience and well-being: A comparison of expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(2), 269–287. doi:10.1348/014466604X17641..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wanberg, C. R., & Marchese, M. C. (1994). Heterogeneity in the unemployment experience: A cluster analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(6), 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb00594.x..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wanberg, C. R., Hough, L. M., & Song, Z. (2002). Predictive validity of a multidisciplinary model of reemployment success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6), 1100. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.6.1100..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wanberg, C. R., Glomb, T. M., Song, Z., & Sorenson, S. (2005). Job-search persistence during unemployment: A 10-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 411. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.411..PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Waters, L., & Moore, K. (2002a). Self-esteem, appraisal and coping: A comparison of unemployed and re-employed people. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(5), 593–604. doi:10.1002/job.156..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Waters, L., & Moore, K. (2002b). Psychological adjustment to unemployment: Interactions between gender and employment status on self-esteem. Journal of Employment Counseling, 39(4), 171–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zikic, J. (2005). Job loss as career growth: Predictors and outcomes of career exploration and job search during involuntary career transition. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  49. Zikic, J., & Klehe, U. C. (2006). Job loss as a blessing in disguise: The role of career exploration and career planning in predicting reemployment quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 391–409. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2006.05.007..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zikic, J., & Hall, D. T. (2009). Toward a more complex view of career exploration. The Career Development Quarterly, 58(2), 181–191. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2009.tb00055.x..CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Northern Illinois UniversityIllinoisUSA
  3. 3.Boston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations