In order to provide the first elements of a participatory process initiated and led by Chinese authorities, this paper will look at the citizen’s involvement in an urban planning project in China and discuss possible avenues to sustain the process in a specific local context over the long-term. Since the end of the 1980s, most community participation projects in China have been implemented in rural environments. This participatory process was carried out in Shanghai’s historically and culturally symbolic Caoyang Workers’ Village, without the external influence of international bodies. Even if some constraints have emerged in the participation of citizens during the pre-project phase, this participatory process seems to have fostered local governance to make significant breakthroughs. It was also the opportunity to reflect upon the minimum conditions to ensure the sustainability of this type of practice in Chinese urban planning projects by adopting the vision of an adapted participatory process.
- Community Participation
- Participatory Approach
- Participatory Process
- Citizen Participation
- Local Governance
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
The term consultation is often used in politics to designate the process by which stakeholders confront each other and finally agree to act together, but it has also commonly acquired the meaning of consulting interested parties prior to any decision, which does not hold the same significance as when one makes the assumption that a decision will be made collectively (Van den Hove 2001).
For instance, the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) supported the Centre for Integrated Agricultural Development (CIAD) in Beijing, which had started to introduce new concepts such as citizen participation and to embed them in their teaching and in their field studies (Plummer and Taylor 2012).
“Persist in people‐orientation and reconstruction according to law. The resolution of the masses’ housing difficulties and improvement in their housing conditions shall be taken as an important goal of old town reconstruction. In respect of the determination of land plots to be reconstructed and the formulation of compensation and resettlement schemes, it is imperative to fully respect the people’s will in strict compliance with the provisions of relevant laws and regulations, so that the masses’ legitimate rights and interests might be maintained, and their real benefit be guaranteed” (Shanghai Municipal Government 2010).
“Encourage all parties involved to participate. In the process of old town reconstruction and house demolition and relocation administrative department shall establish a system of the third-party participation, invite representatives of the people’s congress, members of the CPPCC, professional lawyers, personnel of public trust, representatives of residents, the department of civil affairs, petition letters and calls, discipline supervision and investigation, and auditing, and sub-district offices to jointly participate in and supervise the work of house demolition and relocation for old town reconstruction, and stop resolutely, investigate and handle the acts which damage the masses’ legitimate rights and interests” (Shanghai Municipal Government 2010).
Knowing that the average minimum wage in Shanghai is 1,080 RMB per month, approximately 135 € (Matthey 2011).
From the name of a Shanghainese area which was entirely renovated and transformed into a pedestrianized area with shops and restaurants: "even though the project involved the demolition of the old neighborhood and the relocalization of all its inhabitants, it is now a genuine model of commercial development for numerous Chinese cities " (Leroux et al. 2010).
Aquino, P. (2009). La participation comme élément d’une stratégie globale d’intervention: l’approche «gestion autonome progressive». Cahiers Agricultures, 18(5), 433–440. doi:10.1684/agr.2009.0330
Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224.
Bolay, J.-C. (2012). What sustainable development for the cities of the south? Urban issues for a third millennium. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 4(1). doi:10.1080/19463138.2011.626170
Brody, S. D., Godschalk, D. R., & Burby, R. J. (2003). Mandating citizen participation in plan making: Six strategic planning choices. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(3), 245-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944360308978018
Enserink, B., & Koppenjan, J. (2007). Public participation in China: Sustainable urbanization and governance. Management of Environemental Quality: An International Journal, 18(4), 459–474.
Hu Jintao (2012). Report to the eighteenth national congress of the communist party of China. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform. http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/2012-11/16/content_27137540.htm
Hugrée, C., & Kern, A.-L. (2008). Observer des télé enquêteurs: Les paradoxes de la rationalisation de la production statistique. Genèses, 72, 102–118.
Irvin, R. A., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64(1), 55.
Jaglin, S. (2005). La participation au service du néolibéralisme? Les usagers dans les services d’eau en Afrique subsaharienne. In M.-H. Bacqué, H. Rey & Y. Syntomer (Eds.), Gestion de proximité et démocratie participative: Une perspective comparative (pp. 271–291). Paris: La Découverte.
Kim, J. (1990). Housing development and reforms in China. In G. Shidlo (Ed.), Housing policy in developing countries (pp. 104–120). London: Routledge.
Klimova, Z. (2010). Public participation in urban renewal projects. International Master’s Programme in Environmental Studies and Sustainability Science (Thesis), Lunds University.
Leroux, M., Jacquier, F., & Descamps, J. (2011). Chine: l’héritage culturel en chantier. L’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui, 386, 26–29.
Liu, K. (2008). Procédures et acteurs de l’utilisation du foncier chinois dans un context de mutations socio-économiques: le cas de Beijing-Shanghai-Xi’an, Thèse de doctorat nouveau régime, en urbanisme, aménagement et politiques urbaines, Université Paris-Est, Ecole doctorale EGEE, Institut d’urbanisme de Paris.
Ma, Y. (2011). Statistic analysis: A significant step for Lanxi road case (Summary in English, Masters). School of Naval Architecture: Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
Matthey, A. (2011). Rénovation urbaine à Shanghai. Nouveaux villages ouvriers de Caoyang. Theoretical work, Master, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
Plummer, J., & Taylor, J. G. (Eds.). (2012). Community participation in China: Issues and processes for capacity building. London: Taylor & Francis.
Shanghai Municipal Government (2010). Notice of Shanghai municipal people’s government on printing and distributing opinions on implementing the essence of meeting of the state council on accelerating the reconstruction of urban and state‐owned industrial and mining Shantytowns. Retrieved Mar 1, 2013, from http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node27118/node27386/node27408/node27596/node27429/u26ai29948.html
Stocker, G. (1998). Cinq propositions pour une théorie de la gouvernance. Dossier: La Gouvernance. Revue Internationale des Sciences Sociales, 155, 19–30.
Taylor, N. M. (2005). Urban planning theory since 1945. London: Sage Publications Limited.
Thuillier, E. Paran, F., & Roche, V. (2002). Les agendas 21 locaux: Un difficile passage du savoir à l’action. VertigO ‐ la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement, 3(3). Retrieved Apr 1, 2012, from http://vertigo.revues.org/4179. doi:10.4000/vertigo.4179
UNFPA. (2007). State of world population 2007—Online Report. Retrieved Apr 1, 2012, from http://web.unfpa.org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html
Van den Hove, S. (2001). Approches participatives pour la gouvernance en matière de développement durable. Une analyse en termes d’effets. In G. Froger (Ed.), Gouvernance et Développement Durable, Helbing Lichtenhahn.
Wing Chan, K. (2010). Fundamentals of China’s urbanization and policy. The China Review, 10(1), 63–94.
Xialong, L. (2010). Growth politics in urban China: A case study of Jiangsu’s Jiangyin-Jingjiang Industrial Park. The China Review, 10(1), 39–62.
Xun, L., Xianxiang, X., & Zhigang, L. (2010). Land property rights and urbanization in China. The China Review, 10(1), 11–38.
Zhang, L. (2010). The right to the entrepreneurial city in reform-era China. The China Review, 10(1), 129–156.
Zhao, Y. (2010). Public participation in China’s EIA regime: Rhetoric or reality? Journal of Environmental Law, 22(1), 89–123.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland
About this paper
Cite this paper
Kern, AL., Bolay, JC. (2014). Participatory Processes in Urban Planning Projects in China: The Example of Caoyang Village, Shanghai. In: Bolay, JC., Hostettler, S., Hazboun, E. (eds) Technologies for Sustainable Development. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00639-0_18
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-00638-3
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-00639-0
eBook Packages: Earth and Environmental ScienceEarth and Environmental Science (R0)