Embitterment pp 220-229 | Cite as

4.4 Embitterment and Forgiveness in the context of the Confict in Northern Ireland

  • Ed Cairns
  • Miles Hewstone


What is striking about Linden’s (Linden et al. 2007) description of what he has labeled “posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED)” is the resonances it has with the impact of political conflict in Northern Ireland.


Religious Coping Political Violence Academic Writing Intergroup Contact Gender Educ 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ed Cairns
    • 1
  • Miles Hewstone
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology Research InstituteSchool of Psychology, University of UlsterLondonderryNorthern Ireland
  2. 2.Department of Experimental PsychologyOxfordUK

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