VRUMTM: A Tool for Modelling Travel Patterns of Self-Drive Tourists

  • Nicholas Holyoak
  • Dean Carson
  • Doris Schmallegger


This paper describes’ a geographic information system (GIS) developed to visualise the road routes selected by self-drive visitors to outback Australia. These visitors are typically on multiple destination trips. While existing data sets describe locations of overnight stops, they do not show the locations visitors come into contact with between overnight stops. The Visualising Relatively Unpredictable Movement (VRUMTM) system imputes complete travel paths for selfdrive visitors, allowing destinations and businesses to assess where they fit in trip itineraries VRUMTM has proven valuable as a tool for visualising changes in travel patterns over time. The system may be readily adapted to other destinations.


self-drive tourism tourism GIS multiple destination travel dispersal touring routes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banfi, S., Filippini, M. & Hunt, L.C. (2005). Fuel Tourism in Borer Regions: The Case of Switzerland. Energy Economics 27(5): 689–707.Google Scholar
  2. Becken, S., Vuletich, S & Campbell, S. (2004). Developing a GIS Supported Tourist Flow Model for New Zealand. In J. Tribe and D. Airey (Eds.), Developments in Tourism Research: New Directions, Challenges And Applications. Oxford, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Caliper (2004). Travel Demand Modelling with Transcad. Newton, Massachusetts, Caliper Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, M.J. (2006). Monitoring Trail Use with Digital Still Cameras: Strengths, Limitations and Proposed Resolutions. In D. Siegrist, C. Hunziker and S. Iten, (Eds.), Exploring the Nature of Management. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows In Recreational and Protected Areas. University of Applied Sciences Rapperswil, Switzerland, 13–17 September 2006. Rapperswil.Google Scholar
  5. Carson, D. & Holyoak, N. (2008). Self Drive Tourism Futures for Regional Australia: Understanding Visitor Flows. Tourism Futures National Conference. Gold Coast, Australia. 2–4 June.Google Scholar
  6. Carson, D. & Waldhoer, K. (In Press). Realising the Value of Self-Drive Day Trips to Lower Austria. In B. Prideaux and D. Carson (Eds.), Drive Tourism: Trends and Emerging Markets. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Carson, D. & Waller, I. (2002). The Nature of Drive Tourism In Australia. In D. Carson, II Waller and N. Scott (Eds.), Drive Tourism: Up the Wall and Around the Bend. Melbourne, Common Ground.Google Scholar
  8. Desert Knowledge Australia (2005). Our Outback: Partnerships and Pathways to Success in Tourism. Alice Springs, Desert Knowledge Australia.Google Scholar
  9. Dumont, B. & Gulinck, H. (2004). Push and Pull Assemblages for Modelling Visitor’s Flows in Complex Landscapes. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. [August 8, 2008].Google Scholar
  10. Eby, D.W. & Molnar, L.J. (2002). Importance of Scenic Byways in Route Choice: A Survey of Driving Tourists in the United States. Transport Research Part A 36(2): 95–106.Google Scholar
  11. Hensher, D.A. & Button, K.J. (2002). Handbook of Transport Modelling. Bingley, United Kingdom, Emerald Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Holyoak, N., Taylor, M.A.P. Oxlad, L. & Gregory, J. (2005). Development of a New Strategic Transport Planning Model for Adelaide. 28th Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF). CD-ROM. Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  13. Itami, R. & Gimblett, H. (2001). Intelligent Recreation Agents in a Virtual GIS World. Complexity International 8 [August 29, 2008].Google Scholar
  14. Lau, G. & McKercher, B. (2007). Understanding Tourist Movement Patterns in a Destination: A GIS Approach. Tourism and Hospitality Research 7(1): 39–49.Google Scholar
  15. Lawrence, M. (2005). The System Matters: Systems Thinking and the Study of Regional Tourism Destinations. In D. Carson & J. Macbeth (Eds.), Regional Tourism Cases: Innovation in Regional Tourism. Melbourne, Common Ground.Google Scholar
  16. Leiper, N. (1979). The Framework of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 6(1): 390–407.Google Scholar
  17. Lew, A.A., & McKercher, B. (2002). Trip Destinations, Gateways and Itineraries: The Example of Hong Kong. Tourism Management 23(6): 609–21.Google Scholar
  18. Lew, A. & McKercher, B. (2006). Modeling Tourist Movements: A Local Destination Analysis. Annals of Tourism Research 33(2): 403–423.Google Scholar
  19. Lourens, M. (2007). Route Tourism: A Roadmap for Successful Destinations and Local Economic Development. Development Southern Africa 24(3): 475–490.Google Scholar
  20. Lue, C.C., Crompton J.L. & Fesenmaier D.R. (1993). Conceptualization of Multi-Destination Pleasure Trip Decisions. Annals of Tourism Research 20(2): 289–301.Google Scholar
  21. Marcotte, P., Savard, G. & Semet, F. (2004). A Bilevel Programming Approach to the Travelling Salesman Problem. Operations Research Letters 32(3): 240–248.Google Scholar
  22. Mings, R.C. & Mchugh, K.E. (1992). The Spatial Configuration of Travel to Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Travel Research 30(4): 38–46.Google Scholar
  23. Pan, G.W., Scott, N. & Laws, E. (2006). Understanding and Sharing Knowledge of New Tourism Markets: The Example of Australia’s Inbound Chinese Tourism. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism 7(1/2): 99–116.Google Scholar
  24. Price, M.H. (2008). Mastering Arcgis: 3rd Edition. Toronto, Canada, Mcgraw Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Prideaux, B. & Carson, D. (2003) A Framework for Increasing Understanding of Self Drive Tourism Markets. Journal of Vacation Marketing (September): 307–313.Google Scholar
  26. Prideaux, B. (2000a). The Role of the Transport System in Destination Development. Tourism Management 21(1): 53–63.Google Scholar
  27. Prideaux, B. (2000b). The Resort Development Spectrum — A New Approach to Modelling Resort Development. Tourism Management 21(3): 225–240.Google Scholar
  28. Reece, W.S. (2004). Are Senior Leisure Travellers Different? Journal of Travel Research 43(1): 11–18.Google Scholar
  29. Schmallegger, D. (In Press). Innovation in the Self-Drive Tourism Market in Australia’s Flinders Ranges. In B. Prideaux and D. Carson (Eds.), Drive Tourism: Trends and Emerging Markets. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Shih, H. (2006). Network Characteristics of Drive Tourism Destinations: An Application of Network Analysis in Tourism. Tourism Management 27: 1029–1039.Google Scholar
  31. Tideswell, C. & Faulkner, B. (1999). Multi-Destination Travel Patterns of International Visitors to Queensland. Journal of Travel Research 37(4): 364–74.Google Scholar
  32. Tourism Research Australia. (2006a). International Visitor Survey Canberra, Tourism Research Australia.Google Scholar
  33. Tourism Research Australia. (2006a). National Visitor Survey Canberra, Tourism Research Australia.Google Scholar
  34. Turnquist, M.A. (2006). Characteristics of Effective Freight Models. Freight Demand Modelling: Tools for Public-Sector Decision Making Conference. September 25–27. Washington DC: USA.Google Scholar
  35. Van Der Knaap, W. (1999). Research Report: GIS-Oriented Analysis of Tourist Time-Space Patterns to Support Sustainable Development. Tourism Geographies 1(1): 56–69.Google Scholar
  36. Vogel, A. (2005). Modelling Leisure Day Trips between Berlin and its Surrounding, 45th Congress of The European Regional Science Association. 23–27 August. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  37. Williams, A.M. & Balaz, V. (2008). Low-Cost Carriers: Economies of Flows and Regional Externalities. Regional Studies 42(8).Google Scholar
  38. Wu, C.L. & Carson, D. (2008). Spatial and Temporal Tourist Dispersal Analysis in Multiple Destination Travel. Journal of Travel Research (46): 311–317.Google Scholar
  39. Xia, J. & Arrowsmith, C. (2005). Managing Scale Issues in Spatio-Temporal Movement of Tourists Modelling. International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM05). 12–15 December. Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas Holyoak
    • 1
  • Dean Carson
    • 2
  • Doris Schmallegger
    • 3
  1. 1.Transport Systems CentreUniversity of South AustraliaAustralia
  2. 2.School for Social and Policy ResearchCharles Darwin UniversityAustralia
  3. 3.School for BusinessJames Cook UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations