Advertisement

Abstract

Brain plasticity is the potential of the nervous system to reshape itself during ontogeny, learning or following injuries. The first part of this article reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying plasticity at different functional levels. Such plastic potential means that the anatomo-functional organization of the brain in humans, both physiological and pathological, has flexibility. Patterns of reorganization may differ according to the time-course of cerebral damage, with better functional compensation in more slowly growing lesions. The second part of this review analyzes the interactions between tumor growth and brain reshaping, using non-invasive (neuroimaging) and invasive (electrophysiological) methods of functional mapping. Finally, the therapeutic implications provided by a greater understanding of these mechanisms of cerebral redistribution are explored from a surgical point of view. Enhanced preoperative prediction of an individual’s potential for reorganization might be integrated into surgical planning and preserving quality of life through tailored rehabilitation programmes to optimize functional recovery following resection of a brain tumor.

Keywords

Brain plasticity sensorimotor language functional neuroimaging electrical stimulation mapping brain tumor neuro-oncology low-grade glioma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adametz J (1959) Rate of recovery of functioning in cats with rostral reticular lesions: an experimental study. J Neurosurg 16: 85–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andres FG, Gerloff C (1999) Coherence of sequential movements and motor learning. J Clin Neurophysiol 16: 520–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atlas SW, Howard RS, Maldjian J, Alsop D, Detre JA, Listerud J, D’Esposito M, Judy KD, Zager E, Stecker M (1996) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of regional brain activity in patients with intracerebral gliomas: findings and implications for clinical management. Neurosurgery 38: 329–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aubert A, Costalat R, Duffau H, Benali H (2001) Modeling of pathophysiological coupling between brain electrical activation, energy metabolism and hemodynamics: insights for the interpretation of intracerebral tumor imaging. Acta Biotheor 50: 281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baciu M, Le Bas JF, Segebarth C, Benabid AL (2003) Presurgical fMRI evaluation of cerebral reorganization and motor deficit in patients with tumors and vascular malformations. Eur J Radiol 46: 139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bavelier D, Neville HJ (2002) Cross-modal plasticity: where and how? Nat Rev Neurosci 3: 443–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger MS, Deliganis AV, Dobbins JD, Keles GE (1994) The effect of extent of resection on recurrence in patients with low grade cerebral hemisphere gliomas. Cancer 74: 1784–1791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Berger MS, Rostomily RC (1997) Low grade gliomas: functional mapping resection strategies, extent of resection, and outcome. J Neurooncol 34: 85–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bethe A, Fischer E (1931) Die Anpassungsfähigkeit (Plastizität) des Nervensystems. In: Bethe A, von Bergmann G, Emden G, Ellinger A (eds) Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie. Springer, Berlin, Bd 15/2, pp 1045–1130Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bischoff-Grethe A, Goedert KM, Willingham DT, Grafton ST (2004) Neural substrates of response-based sequence learning using fMRI. J Cogn Neurosci 16: 127–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bonnetblanc F, Baraduc P, Duffau H, Desmurget M (2006) Visually-directed movements in slow lesions invading the posterior parietal cortex. TMS based evidence for plastic compensation by the controlesional homologue. NeuroImage 31Suppl 1: S149Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brell M, Ibanez J, Caral L, Ferrer E (2000) Factors influencing surgical complications of intra-axial brain tumours. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 142: 739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchkremer-Ratzmann I, August M, Hagemann G, Witte OW (1996) Electrophysiological transcortical diaschisis after cortical photothrombosis in rat brain. Stroke 27: 1105–1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM (1998) Cortical plasticity: from synapses to maps. Ann Rev Neurosci 21: 149–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byrne JH (1997) Synapses. Plastic plasticity. Nature 389: 791–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cao Y, D’Olhaberriague L, Vikingstad EM, Levine SR, Welch KM (1998) Pilot study of functional MRI to assess cerebral activation of motor function after poststroke hemiparesis. Stroke 29: 112–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carel C, Loubinoux I, Boulanouar K, Manelfe C, Rascol O, Celsis P, Chollet F (2000) Neural substrate for the effects of passive training on sensorimotor cortical representation: a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20: 478–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chassoux F, Devaux B, Landre E, Chodkiewicz JP, Talairach J, Chauvel P (1999) Postoperative motor deficits and recovery after cortical resections. Adv Neurol 81: 189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chollet F, DiPiero V, Wise RJ, Brooks DJ, Dolan RJ, Frackowiak RS (1991) The functional anatomy of motor recovery after stroke in humans: a study with positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol 29: 63–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cicinelli P, Pasqualetti P, Zaccagnini M, Traversa R, Oliveri M, Rossini PM (2003) Interhemispheric asymmetries of motor cortex excitability in the postacute stroke stage: a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Stroke 34: 2653–2658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Claus EB, Horlacher A, Hsu L, Schwartz RB, Dello-Iacono D, Talos F, Jolesz FA, Black PM (2005) Survival rates in patients with low-grade glioma after intraoperative magnetic resonance image guidance. Cancer 103: 1227–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cruikshank SJ, Weinberger NM (1996) Evidence for the Hebbian hypothesis in experience-dependent physiological plasticity of neocortex: a critical review. Brain Res Rev 22: 191–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeAngelis LM (2001) Brain tumors. N Engl J Med 344: 114–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Desmurget M, Epstein CM, Turner RS, Prablanc C, Alexander GE, Grafton ST (1999) Role of the posterior parietal cortex in updating reaching movements to a visual target. NatNeurosci 2: 563–567Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Desmurget M, Bonnetblanc F, Duffau H (2007) Contrasting acute and slow-growing lesions: a new door to brain plasticity. Brain 130: 898–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dityatev A, Schachner M (2003) Extracellular matrix molecules and synaptic plasticity. Nat Rev Neurosci 4: 456–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Doesborgh SJ, van de Sandt-Koenderman MW, Dippel DW, van Harskamp F, Koudstaal PJ, Visch-Brink EG (2004) Effects of semantic treatment on verbal communication and linguistic processing in aphasia after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 35: 141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Draganski B, Gaser C, Busch V, Schuierer G, Bogdahn U, May A (2004) Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature 427: 311–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Duffau H, Sichez JP, Lehéricy S (2000) Intraoperative unmasking of brain redundant motor sites during resection of a precentral angioma. Evidence using direct cortical stimulations. Ann Neurol 47: 132–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Duffau H, Capelle L, Lopes M, Faillot T, Sichez JP, Fohanno D (2000) The insular lobe: physiopathological and surgical considerations. Neurosurgery 47: 801–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duffau H (2001) Acute functional reorganisation of the human motor cortex during resection of central lesions: a study using intraoperative brain mapping. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70: 506–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duffau H, Capelle L (2001) Functional recuperation following lesions of the primary somatosensory fields. Study of compensatory mechanisms. Neurochirurgie 47: 557–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duffau H, Bauchet L, Lehericy S, Capelle L (2001) Functional compensation of the left dominant insula for language. Neuroreport 12: 2159–2163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Duffau H, Capelle L, Sichez N, Denvil D, Lopes M, Sichez JP, Bitar A, Fohanno D (2002) Intraoperative mapping of the subcortical language pathways using direct stimulations. An anatomo-functional study. Brain 125: 199–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Duffau H, Denvil D, Capelle L (2002) Absence of movement disorders after surgical resection of glioma invading the right striatum. J Neurosurg 97: 363–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Duffau H, Denvil D, Capelle L (2002) Long term reshaping of language, sensory, and motor maps after glioma resection: a new parameter to integrate in the surgical strategy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72: 511–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Duffau H, Capelle L, Denvil D, Sichez N, Gatignol P, Lopes M, Mitchell MC, Sichez JP, van Effenterre R (2003) Functional recovery after surgical resection of low grade gliomas in eloquent brain: hypothesis of brain compensation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74: 901–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Duffau H, Capelle L, Denvil D, Sichez N, Gatignol P, Taillandier L, Lopes M, Mitchell MC, Roche S, Muller JC, Bitar A, Sichez JP, van Effenterre R (2003) Usefulness of intraoperative electrical subcortical mapping during surgery for low-grade gliomas located within eloquent brain regions: functional results in a consecutive series of 103 patients. J Neurosurg 98: 764–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Duffau H, Karachi C, Gatignol P, Capelle L (2003) Transient Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome after surgical resection of a right insulo-opercular low-grade glioma: case report. Neurosurgery 53: 426–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Duffau H, Capelle L (2004) Preferential brain locations of low-grade gliomas. Cancer 100: 2622–2626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Duffau H, Khalil I, Gatignol P, Denvil D, Capelle L (2004) Surgical removal of corpus callosum infiltrated by low-grade glioma: functional outcome and oncological considerations. J Neurosurg 100: 431–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Duffau H (2005) Lessons from brain mapping in surgery for low-grade glioma: insights into associations between tumour and brain plasticity. Lancet Neurol 4: 476–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Duffau H (2005) Intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulations in surgery of low-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother 5: 473–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Duffau H, Lopes M, Arthuis F, Bitar A, Sichez JP, van Effenterre R, Capelle L (2005) Contribution of intraoperative electrical stimulations in surgery of low grade gliomas: a comparative study between two series without (1985–1996) and with (1996–2003) functional mapping in the same institution. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76: 845–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Duffau H, Gatignol P, Mandonnet E, Peruzzi P, Tzourio-Mazoyer B, Capelle L (2005) New insights into the anatomo-functional connectivity of the semantic system: a study using cortico-subcortical electrostimulations. Brain 128: 797–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duffau H (2006) New concepts in surgery of WHO grade II gliomas: functional brain mapping, connectionism and plasticity — a review. J Neurooncol 79: 77–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Duffau H (2006) Brain plasticity: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. J Clin Neurosci 13: 885–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Duffau H, Taillandier L, Gatignol P, Capelle L (2006) The insular lobe and brain plasticity: lessons from tumor surgery. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 108: 543–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Duffau H (in press) Contribution of cortical and subcortical electrostimulation in brain glioma surgery: methodological and functional considerations. Neurophysiol ClinGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fandino J, Kollias SS, Wieser HG, Valavanis A, Yonekawa Y (1999) Intraoperative validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and cortical reorganization patterns in patients with brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex. J Neurosurg 91: 238–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Feydy A, Carlier R, Roby-Brami A, Bussel B, Cazalis F, Pierot L, Burnod Y, Maier MA (2002) Longitudinal study of motor recovery after stroke: recruitment and focusing of brain activation. Stroke 33: 1610–1617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fields RD, Stevens-Graham B (2002) New insights into neuron-glia communication. Science 298: 556–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Finger S, Marshak RA, Cohen M, Scheff S, Trace R, Niemand D (1971) Effects of successive and simultaneous lesions of somatosensory cortex on tactile discrimination in the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 77: 221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Finney E, Fine I, Dobkins K (2001) Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nat Neurosci 4: 1171–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ganslandt O, Buchfelder M, Hastreiter P, Grummich P, Fahlbusch R, Nimsky C (2004) Magnetic source imaging supports clinical decision making in glioma patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 107: 20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Georgopoulos AP (1999) News in motor cortical physiology. News Physiol Sci 14: 64–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gould E, Reeves AJ, Graziano MS, Gross CG (1999) Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Science 286: 548–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Graveline CJ, Mikulis DJ, Crawley AP, Hwang PA (1998) Regionalized sensorimotor plasticity after hemispherectomy fMRI evaluation. Pediatr Neurol 19: 337–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Graziano MS, Taylor CS, Moore T, Cooke DF (2002) The cortical control of movement revisited. Neuron 36: 349–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gross CG (2000) Neurogenesis in the adult brain: death of a dogma. Nat Rev Neurosci 1: 67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Haydon PG (2001) GLIA: listening and talking to the synapse. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Heiss WD, Thiel A, Kessler J, Herholz K (2003) Disturbance and recovery of language function: correlates in PET activation studies. Neuroimage 20Suppl 1: S42–S49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hetten T, Gabrieli JDE (2004) Insights into ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 5: 87–96Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Herholz K, Heiss WD (2000) Functional imaging correlates of recovery after stroke in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20: 1619–1631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hlustik P, Solodkin A, Gullapalli RP, Noll DC, Small SL (2001) Somatotopy in human primary motor and somatosensory hand representations revisited. Cereb Cortex 11: 312–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holmes GL, McCabe B (2001) Brain development and generation of brain pathologies. Int Rev Neurobiol 45: 17–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Holodny AI, Schulder M, Ybasco A, Liu WC (2002) Translocation of Broca’s area to the contralateral hemisphere as the result of the growth of a left inferior frontal glioma. J Comput Assist Tomogr 26: 941–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ivanco TL, Greenough WT (2000) Physiological consequences of morphologically detectable synaptic plasticity: potential uses for examining recovery following damage. Neuropharmacology 39: 765–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jackson JH (1879) On affections of speech from disease of the brain. Brain 1879: 323–356Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jacobs KM, Donoghue JP (1991) Reshaping the cortical motor map by unmasking latent intracortical connections. Science 251: 944–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Krainik A, Lehéricy S, Duffau H, Capelle L, Chainay H, Cornu P, Cohen L, Boch AL, Mangin JF, Le Bihan D, Marsault C (2003) Postoperative speech disorder after medial frontal surgery: role of the supplementary motor area. Neurology 60: 587–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Krainik A, Duffau H, Capelle L, Cornu P, Boch AL, Mangin JF, Le Bihan D, Marsault C, Chiras J, Lehéricy S (2004) Role of the healthy hemisphere in recovery after resection of the supplementary motor area. Neurology 62: 1323–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Krings T, Topper R, Willmes K, Reinges MH, Gilsbach JM, Thron A (2002) Activation in primary and secondary motor areas in patients with CNS neoplasms and weakness. Neurology 58: 381–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lamprecht R, LeDoux J (2004) Structural plasticity and memory. Nat Rev Neurosci 5: 45–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Laubach M, Wessberg J, Nicolelis MA (2000) Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task. Nature 405: 567–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    LeRoux PD, Berger MS, Haglund MM, Pilcher WH, Ojemann GA (1991) Resection of intrinsic tumors from nondominant face motor cortex using stimulation mapping: report of two cases. Surg Neurol 36: 44–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Liepert J, Bauder H, Wolfgang HR, Miltner WH, Taub E, Weiller C (2000) Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke 31: 1210–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Liu Y, Rouiller EM (1999) Mechanisms of recovery of dexterity following unilateral lesion of the sensorimotor cortex in adult monkeys. Exp Brain Res 128: 149–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Magavi SS, Macklis JD (2002) Induction of neuronal type-specific neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex of adult mice: manipulation of neual precursors in situ. Dev Brain Res 134: 57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maguire EA, Gadian DG, Johnsrude IS, Good CD, Ashburner J, Frackowiak RS, Frith CD (2000) Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 4398–4403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Malenka RC, Nicoll RA (1997) Silent synapses speak up. Neuron 19: 473–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mandonnet E, Delattre JY, Tanguy ML, Swanson KR, Carpentier AF, Duffau H, Cornu P, van Effenterre R, Alvord EC Jr, Capelle L (2003) Continuous growth of mean tumor diameter in a subset of grade II gliomas. Ann Neurol 53: 524–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mandonnet E, Capelle L, Duffau H (2006) Extension of paralimbic low-grade gliomas: toward an anatomical classification based on white matter invasion pattern. J Neurooncol 78: 179–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marque P, Felez A, Puel M, Démonet JF, Guiraud-Chaumeil B, Roques CF, Chollet F (1997) Impairment and recovery of left motor function in patients with right hemiplegia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 62: 77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Marrelec G, Krainik A, Duffau H, Pelegrini-Issac M, Lehericy S, Doyon J, Benali H (2006) Partial correlation for functional brain interactivity investigation in functional MRI. Neuroimage 32: 228–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marshall RS, Perera GM, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW, Constantine RC, DeLaPaz RL (2000) Evolution of cortical activation during recovery from corticospinal tract infarction. Stroke 31: 656–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Martin SJ, Grimwood PD, Morris RG (2000) Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Annu Rev Neurosci 23: 649–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meunier S, Duffau H, Garnero L, Capelle L, Ducorps A (2000) Comparison of the somatosensory cortical mapping of the fingers using a whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct electrical stimulations during surgery in awake patients. Neuroimage 15: S868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meyer D, Isaac W, Maher B (1958) The role of stimulation in spontaneous reorganization of visual habits. J Comp Physiol Psychol 51: 546–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Meyer PT, Sturz L, Schreckenberger M, Spetzger U, Meyer GF, Setani KS, Sabri O, Buell U (2003) Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30: 951–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Muller RA, Rothermel RD, Behen ME, Muzik O, Chakraborty PK, Chugani HT (1999) Language organization in patients with early and late left-hemisphere lesion: a PET study. Neuropsychologia 37: 545–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Munte TF, Altenmuller E, Jancke L (2002) The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nat Rev Neurosci 3: 473–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Noppeney U, Friston KJ, Price CJ (2003) Effects of visual deprivation on the organization of the semantic system. Brain 126: 1620–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nudo RJ, Wise BM, SiFuentes F, Milliken GW (1996) Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct. Science 272: 1791–1794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ojemann G, Ojemann G, Lettich E, Berger M (1989) Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. An electrical stimulation mapping investigation in 117 patients. J Neurosurg 71: 316–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Patrissi G, Stein DG (1975) Temporal factors in recovery of function after brain damage. Exp Neurol 47: 470–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Paus T, Zijdenbos A, Worsley K, Collins DL, Blumenthal J, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, Evans AC (1999) Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science 283: 1908–1911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Payne R, Lomber S (2001) Reconstructing functional systems after lesions of cerebral cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 911–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Peck KK, Moore AB, Crosson BA, Gaiefsky M, Gopinath KS, White K, Briggs RW (2004) Functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after aphasia therapy. Shifs in hemodynamic time peak during an overt language task. Stroke 35: 554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Penfield W, Bolchey E (1937) Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of the man as studied by electrical stimulation. Brain 60: 389–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Petrovich NM, Holodny AI, Brennan CW, Gutin PH (2004) Isolated translocation of Wernicke’s area to the right hemisphere in a 62-year-man with a temporo-parietal glioma. Am J Neuroradiol 25: 130–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Poo MM (2001) Neurotrophins as synaptic modulators. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 24–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pulvermuller F, Neininger B, Elbert T, Mohr B, Rockstroh B, Koebbel P, Taub E (2001) Constraint-induced therapy of chronic aphasia after stroke. Stroke 32: 1621–1626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rijntjes M, Weiller C (2002) Recovery of motor and language abilities after stroke: the contribution of functional imaging. Prog Neurobiol 66: 109–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rosen J, Stein D, Butters N (1971) Recovery of function after serial ablation of prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey. Science 173: 353–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rosen HJ, Petersen SE, Linenweber MR, Snyder AZ, White DA, Chapman L, Dromerick AW, Fiez JA, Corbetta MD (2000) Neural correlates of recovery from aphasia after damage to left inferior frontal cortex. Neurology 55: 1883–1894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rossini PM, Dal Forno G (2004) Integrated technology for evaluation of brain function and neural plasticity. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 15: 263–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rouiller EM, Yu XH, Moret V, Tempini A, Wiesendanger M, Liang F (1998) Dexterity in adult monkeys following early lesion of the motor cortical hand area: the role of cortex adjacent to the lesion. Eur J Neurosci 10: 729–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Roux FE, Boulanouar K, Ibarrola D, Tremoulet M, Chollet F, Berry I (2000) Functional MRI and intraoperative brain mapping to evaluate brain plasticity in patients with brain tumours and hemiparesis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69: 453–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Roux FE, Boulanouar K, Lotterie JA, Mejdoubi M, LeSage JP, Berry I (2003) Language functional magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative assessment of language areas: correlation with direct cortical stimulation. Neurosurgery 52: 1335–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Salenius S, Hari R (2003) Synchronous cortical oscillatory activity during motor action. Curr Opin Neurobiol 13: 678–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sanai N, Tramontin A, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Barbaro NM, Gupta N, Kunwar S, Lawton MT, McDermott MW, Parsa AT, Manuel-Garcia Verdugo J, Berger MS, Alvarez-Buylla A (2004) Unique astrocyte ribbon in adult human brain contains neural stem cells but lacks chain migration. Nature 427: 740–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (2005) Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas. N Engl J Med 353: 811–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sanai N, Alvarez-Buylla A, Berger MS (2006) Neural stem cells and the origin of gliomas. N Engl J Med 353: 811–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sanes JN, Donoghue JP, Thangaraj V, Edelman RR, Warach S (1995) Shared neural substrates controlling hand movements in human motor cortex. Science 268: 1775–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sanes JN, Donoghue JP (1997) Static and dynamic organization of motor cortex. Adv Neurol 73: 277–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sanes JN, Donoghue JP (2000) Plasticity and primary motor cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci 23: 393–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sanes JN, Schieber MH (2001) Orderly somatotopy in primary motor cortex: does it exist? Neuroimage 13: 968–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sawaya R, Hammoud M, Schoppa D, Hess KR, Wu SZ, Shi WM, Wildrick DM (1998) Neurological outcomes in a modern series of 400 craniotomies for treatment of parenchymal tumors. Neurosurgery 42: 1044–1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schiffbauer H, Ferrari P, Rowley HA, Berger MS, Roberts TPL (2001) Functional activity within brain tumors: a magnetic source imaging study. Neurosurgery 49: 1313–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Seitz RJ, Azari NP, Knorr U, Binkofski F, Herzog H, Freund HJ (1999) The role of diaschisis in stroke recovery. Stroke 30: 1844–1850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Selnes OA (1999) Recovery from aphasia: activating the “right” hemisphere. Ann Neurol 45: 419–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shimizu T, Hosaki A, Hino T, Sato M, Komori T, Hirai S, Rossini PM (2002) Motor cortical disinhibition in the unaffected hemisphere after unilateral cortical stroke. Brain 125: 1896–1907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Spena G, Gatignol P, Capelle L, Duffau H (2006) Superior longitudinal fasciculus subserves vestibular network in humans. Neuroreport 17: 1403–1406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stein DG, Butters N, Rosen J (1977) A comparison of two-and four-stage ablations of sulcus principals on recovery of spatial performance in the rhesus monkey. Neuropsychologia 15: 179–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sterr A, Elbert T, Berthold I, Kolbel S, Rockstroh B, Taub E (2002) Longer versus shorter daily constraint-induced movement therapy of chronic hemiparesis: an exploratory study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83: 1374–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Taphoorn MJ, Klein M (2004) Cognitive deficits in adult patients with brain tumours. Lancet Neurol 3: 159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Taub E, Uswatte G, Elbert T (2002) New treatments in neurorehabilitation founded on basis research. Nat Rev Neurosci 3: 228–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Teixidor P, Gatignol P, Leroy M, Masuet-Aumatell C, Capelle L, Duffau H (2007) Assessment of verbal working memory before and after surgery for low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol 81: 305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Thiebaut de Schotten M, Urbanski M, Duffau H, Volle E, Levy R, Dubois B, Bartolomeo P (2005) Direct evidence for a parietal-frontal pathway subserving spatial awareness in humans. Science 309: 2226–2228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Thiel A, Herholz K, Koyuncu A, Ghaemi M, Kracht LW, Habedank B, Heiss WD (2001) Plasticity of language networks in patients with brain tumors: a positron emission tomography activation study. Ann Neurol 50: 620–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Thiel A, Habedank B, Winhuisen L, Herholz K, Kessler J, Haupt WF, Heiss WD (2005) Essential language function of the right hemisphere in brain tumor patients. Ann Neurol 57: 128–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Turrigiano GG, Nelson SB (2004) Homeostatic plasticity in the developping nervous system. Nat Neurosci Rev 5: 97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ullian EM, Sapperstein SK, Christopherson KS, Barres BA (2001) Control of synapse number by glia. Science 291: 657–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ulmer JL, Hacein-Bey L, Mathews VP, Mueller WM, DeYoe EA, Prost RW, Meyer GA, Krouwer HG, Schmainda KM (2004) Lesion-induced pseudo-dominance at functional magnetic resonance imaging: implications for preoperative assessments. Neurosurgery 55: 569–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Vigneau M, Beaucousin V, Herve PY, Duffau H, Crivello F, Houde O, Mazoyer B, Tzourio-Mazoyer N (2006) Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. Neuroimage 30: 1414–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vives KP, Piepmeir JM (1999) Complications and expected outcome of glioma surgery. J Neurooncol 42: 289–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    von Monakow C (1914) Die lokalisation im groshirn un der abbau der funktion durch kortikale herde. Bergman JF, Wiesbaden, Germany, pp 26–34Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Walbran BB (1976) Age and serial ablations of somatosensory cortex in the rat. Physiol Behav 17: 13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Walker DG, Kaye AH (2003) Low grade glial neoplasms. J Clin Neurosci 10: 1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Weiller C, Ramsay SC, Wise RJ, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RS (1993) Individual patterns of functional reorganization in the human cerebral cortex after capsular infarction. Ann Neurol 33: 181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Weiller C (1998) Imaging recovery from stroke. Exp Brain Res 123: 13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wessels PH, Weber WE, Raven G, Ramaekers FC, Hopman AH, Twijnstra A (2003) Supratentorial grade II astrocytoma: biological features and clinical course. Lancet Neurol 2: 395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Xerri C (1998) Post-lesional plasticity of somatosensory cortex maps: a review. C R Acad Sci III 321: 135–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Xerri C, Merzenich MM, Peterson BE, Jenkins W (1998) Plasticity of primary somatosensory cortex paralleling sensorimotor skill recovery from stroke in adult monkeys. J Neurophysiol 79: 2119–2148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Xerri C, Zennou-Azogui Y (2003) Influence of the postlesion environment and chronic piracetam treatment on the organization of the somatotopic map in the rat primary somatosensory cortex after focal cortical injury. Neuroscience 118: 161–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Yasargil MG, van Ammon K, Cavazos E, Doczi T, Reeves JD, Roth P (1992) Tumours of the limbic and paralimbic systems. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 118: 40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zentner J, Hufnagel A, Pechstein U, Wolf HK, Schramm J (1996) Functional results after resective procedures involving the supplementary motor area. J Neurosurg 85: 542–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Duffau
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Gui de ChauliacCHU de MontpellierMontpellier CedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurosciences Cognitives (CNRS FRE 2987/Université de Paris V René Descartes)Institut de PsychologieBoulogne BillancourtFrance

Personalised recommendations