Advertisement

Embryological and Surgical Anatomy of the Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Biliary Tree

  • A. F. DalleyII
  • K. L. Moore
Chapter
  • 3k Downloads

Abstract

The hepatobiliary system develops during the second half of the eight week embryonic stage of development, known as the organogenetic period [1]. Many of the anatomic variations of the system are the consequences of occurrences during this period [2]. At the beginning of gestational week 4, early development of only the nervous and cardiovascular systems has occurred. The full length of the flat, three-layered embryonic disc lies in contact with the yolk sac, and the developing heart lies at the rostral end (fig. 1.1A2). Rapid growth of the dorsally-placed central nervous system in the long axis of the embryo results in simultaneous folding at the cranial and caudal ends and sides of the embryo. Concurrently, there is relative constriction at the junction of the embryo and yolk sac, so that the full length contact is diminished to a connecting yolk stalk (fig. 1.1C2). In this process, the neural folds have thickened disproportionately to the rest of the neural place, forming the primordium of the brain. The thickest, most rostral part, destined to become the forebrain, overhangs the developing heart, contained within a transverse mesodermal fold, the transverse septum (fig. 1.1B2)

Keywords

Bile Duct Cystic Duct Hepatic Duct Cystic Artery Common Hepatic Duct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Sources of lllustrations

  1. [1]
    Moore KL and TVN Persaud: The Developing Human — Clinically Oriented Embryology, 7th ed. Elsevier Science (WB Saunders), Philadelphia (2003), p. 78.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Wind GG: Embryology of the liver and bile ducts. Syllabus of Postgraduate Course 15: Clinical Anatomy and Embryology of the Liver, Gallbladder, and Bile Ducts for the Hepatobiliary Surgeon: Pitfalls and Admonitions. 86th Annual Clinical Congress, American College of Surgeons, Chicago (2000), pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Larsen WJ: Human Embryology, 3rd ed. Elsevier Science (Churchill Livingstone), 2001, p. 240.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Carlson BM: Human Embryology and Developmental Biology, Updated 3rd ed., Elsevier Science (Mosby), New York (2004), p. 337.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Standring S (ed.): Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Medicine and Surgery, 39th British ed. Elsevier Science (Churchill Livingstone), New York (2004), pp. 1255–6.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Moore KL, TVN Persaud, K Shiota: Color Atlas of Clinical Embryology, 2nd ed. Elsevier Science (WB Saunders), Philadelphia (2000), p. 158.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Ross MH and W Pawlina: Histology — A Text and Atlas With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (2006), p. 576.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Larsen WJ: Human Embryology, 3rd ed. Elsevier Science (Churchill Livingstone), 2001, p. 214.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Skandalakis JE, SW Gray, R Ricketts, LJ Skandalakis, T Dodson: The extrahepatic biliary ducts and the gallbladder. Chapter 9 of Skandalakis JE and SW Gray: Embryology for Surgeons: The Embryological Basis for the Treatment of Congenital Anomalies, 2nd ed., Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (1993), pp. 297–303.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (2006), p. 294.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Collins P: Embryology of the liver and bile ducts. In: Howard ER, MD Stringer, PM Colombani (eds): Surgery of the Liver, Bile Ducts and Pancreas in Children, Part 3. Arnold, London (2002), pp. 91–102, as cited in Standring (2004), op cit, p. 1256.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Moore KL and TVN Persaud: PM Colombani (eds): Surgery of the Liver, Bile Ducts and Pancreas in Children, Part 3. Arnold, London (2002) Op cit, p. 262.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (2006), p. 301.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Ross MH and W Pawlina: Op cit, p. 590.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Adkins BR Jr, Congenital anomalies of the liver and bile duct. Syllabus of Postgraduate Course 15: Clinical Anatomy and Embryology of the Liver, Gallbladder, and Bile Ducts for the Hepatobiliary Surgeon: Pitfalls and Admonitions. 86th Annual Clinical Congress, American College of Surgeons, Chicago (2000), p. 9.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, 11th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (2005), p. 148.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Wind GG: Biliary variation. Syllabus of Postgraduate Course 15: Clinical Anatomy and Embryology of the Liver, Gallbladder, and Bile Ducts for the Hepatobiliary Surgeon: Pitfalls and Admonitions. 86th Annual Clinical Congress, American College of Surgeons, Chicago (2000), pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 151.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 304.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Dalley, AF: Basic anatomy of the liver and biliary tree. Syllabus of Postgraduate Course 15: Clinical Anatomy and Embryology of the Liver, Gallbladder, and Bile Ducts for the Hepatobiliary Surgeon: Pitfalls and Admonitions. 86th Annual Clinical Congress, American College of Surgeons, Chicago (2000), pp. 6–8.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 304.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 130.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 303.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Mirizzi OL: Syndrome del conducto hepatico. Bull Soc Int Chir 8:731–737 (1848), as cited in Skandalakis et al., p. 326.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 302.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Cantlie J: On a new arrangement of the right and left lobes of the liver. J. Anat. Physiol. [Lond] 32:iv (1898).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 148.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Moore KL and AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 303.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 151.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Rocko JM, KG Swan, JM Di Gioia: Calot’s triangle revisited. Surg Gynecol Obstet 153:410–414 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Agur AMR, AF Dalley: Op cit, p. 148.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Bergman RA, SA Thompson, AK Afifi: Compendium of Human Anatomical Variation. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich (1988).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Bergman RA, AK Afifi, R Miyauchi: Illustrated encyclopaedia of human anatomic variations. http://www.uh.org/Providers/Textbooks/AnatomicVariants/AnatomyHP.html.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. F. DalleyII
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. L. Moore
    • 3
  1. 1.Vanderbilt University School of MedicineUSA
  2. 2.Belmont University School of Physical TherapyNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations