Advertisement

Abstract

Anxiolytic agents represent a class of compounds which in fact started with alcohol, barbiturates and meprobamate but was actually recognized when chlordiazepoxide, the prototype of the benzodiazepine (BDZ) family, was discovered. BDZ attracted widespread interest, and soon joined the ranks of the most prescribed drugs in the world. Their mechanism of action remained nebulous until it was found that they bind specifically in the central nervous system. The binding sites are unevenly distributed in various brain areas and are associated with a GABA receptor and a chloride channel. It is commonly accepted that BDZ potentiate the increase in chloride ion conduction produced by GABA, thus enhancing this amino acid’s inhibitory effect.

Keywords

Parent Drug Plasma Corticosterone Anxiolytic Activity Anxiolytic Drug Anxiolytic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. Costa, A. Guidotti, C. C. Mao and A. Suria: Life Sci. 17, 167 (1975).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Haefely, P. Pole, L. Pieri, R. Schaffner and J.-P. Laurent, In: The Benzodiazepines: From Molecular Biology to Clinical Practice, p. 21. E. Costa, Ed., Raven Press, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Braestrup and M. Nielsen, In: Handbook of Psychopharmacology, vol. 17. Biochemical Studies of CNS Receptors, p. 285. L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen and S. H. Snyder, Eds., Plenum Press, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. J. Ehlert, W. R. Roeske, K. W. Gee and H. I. Yamamura: Biochem. Pharmac. 32, 2375 (1983).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Pole, E. P. Bonetti, R. Schaffner and W. Haefely: Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmac. 321, 260 (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. E. Study and J. L. Barker: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 78, 7180 (1981).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. C. Blanchard, A. Boireau, C. Garret and L. Julou: Life Sci. 24, 2417 (1979).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. F. Squires, D. I. Benson, C. Braestrup, J. Coupet, C. A. Klepner, V. Myers and B. Beer: Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 10, 825 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. S. Lippa, J. Coupet, E. N. Greenblatt, C. A. Klepner and B. Beer: Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 11, 99 (1979).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. A. Klepner, A. S. Lippa, D. I. Benson, M. C. Sano and B. Beer: Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 11, 457 (1979).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. W. Gee and H. I. Yamamura: Life Sci. 31, 1939 (1982).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. W. Gee, R. E. Brinton and H. I. Yamamura: Life Sci. 32, 1037 (1983).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. L. Martin, C. L. Brown and A. Doble: Life Sci. 32, 1925 (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. Mennini, D. Barone and M. Gobbi: Psychopharmacology 86, 464 (1985).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. J. Czernik, B. Petrack, H. J. Kalinsky, S. Psychoyos, W. D. Cash, C. Tsai, R. K. Rinehart, F. R. Granat, R. A. Lovell, D. E. Brundish and R. Wade: Life Sci. 30, 363 (1982).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Yokoyama and T. Glenn. In: 184th American Chemical Society Meeting, Kansas City, 1982, abs. 58.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Le Fur, J. Mizoule, M. C. Burgevin, O. Ferris, M. Heaulme, A. Gauthier, C. Gueremy and A. Uzan: Life Sci. 28, 1439 (1981).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Mennini and S. Garattini: Life Sci. 31, 2025 (1982).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Mennini, M. Gobbi and S. Garattini: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 36, 621 (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Mennini, A. Abbiati, S. Caccia, S. Cotecchia, A. Gomez and S. Garattini: Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmac. 321, 112 (1982).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. Sieghart, A. Eichinger, J. G. Richards H. Mohler: J. Neurochem. 48, 46 (1987)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Haring, C. Stahli, P. Schoch, B. Takacs, T. Staehelin and H. Mohler: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 82, 4837 (1985).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. G. Richards, P. Schoch, H. Möhler and W. Haefely: Experientia 42, 121 (1986).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Guidotti, G. Toffano and E. Costa: Nature 275, 553 (1978).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Guidotti, C. M. Forchetti, M. G. Corda, D. Konkel, C. D. Bennett and E. Costa: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 80, 3531 (1983).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Ferrero, M. R. Santi, B. Conti-Tronconi, E. Costa and A. Guidotti: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 83, 827 (1986).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. W. Gray, D. Glaister, P. H. Seeburg, A. Guidotti and E. Costa: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 83, 7547 (1986).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Rossier, R. Dodd, S. Felblum, A. Valin, L. Prado de Carvalho, P. Potier and R. Naquet: Lancet 1, 11 (1983).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. S. Tenen and J. D. Hirsch: Nature 288, 609 (1980).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P.J. Cowen, A. R. Green, D.J. Nutt and I. L. Martin: Nature 290, 54 (1981).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Pena, J. H. Medina, M. L. Novas, A. C. Paladini and E. De Robertis: Proc. nati Acad. Sci. USA 83, 4952 (1986).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Biggio. In: Benzodiazepine Recognition Site Ligands: Biochemistry and Pharmacology, p. 105. G. Biggio and E. Costa, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1983.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Darragh, R. Lambe, M. Scully, I. Brich, C. O’Boyle W. W. Downie: Lancet 2,8(1981)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. Haefely: Clin. Neuropharmac. 7 suppl 1, S363 (1984).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Garattini, S. Caccia, M. Carli and T. Mennini: Adv. Biosci. 31, 351 (1981).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. J. Greenblatt, R. I. Shader and J. Koch-Weser: Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 17, 1 (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Mandelli, G. Tognoni and S. Garattini: Clin. Pharmacokinet. 3, 12 (1978).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Garattini, E. Mussini, F. Marcucci A. Guaitani. In: The Benzodiazepines, p. 75. S. Garattini, E. Mussini L. O. Randall, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1973Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Gastaut, R. Naquet, R. Poiré and C. A. Tassinari: Epilepsia 6, 167 (1965).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. L. Morselli, G. B. Cassano, G. F. Placidi, G. B. Muscettola and M. Rizzo. In: The Benzodiazepines, p. 129. S. Garattini, E. Mussini and L. O. Randall, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. Van der Kleijn, T. B. Vree and P. J. M. Guelen. In: Psychotherapeutic Drugs. Part II. Applications, p. 997. E. Usdin and I. S. Forrest, Eds., Dekker, New York 1977.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schwartz, M. A. In: The Benzodiazepines, p. 53. S. Garattini, E. Mussini and L. O. Randall, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. J. Greenblatt and R. I. Shader: Benzodiazepines in Clinical Practice, Raven Press, New York 1974.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Garattini, F. Marcucci and E. Mussini. In: Psychotherapeutic Drugs. Part II. Applications, p. 1039. E. Usdin and I. S. Forrest, Eds., Dekker, New York 1977.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Volz, O. Christ, H.-M. Kellner, H. Kuch, H.-W. Fehlhaber, D. Gantz, P. Hajdu and F. Cavagna: Br. J. clin. Pharmac. 7, 41S (1979).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Caccia, G. Guiso, R. Samanin and S. Garattini: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 32, 101 (1980).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. Rupp, M. Badian, O. Christ, P. Hajdù, R. D. Kulkarni, K. Taeuber, M. Uihlein, R. Bender O. Vanderbeke: Br. J. clin. Pharmac. 7,51S (1979)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Caccia, M. Ballabio and S. Garattini: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 33, 185 (1981).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. M. Fuccella, G. Bolcioni, V. Tamassia, L. Ferrario and G. Tognoni: Eur. J. clin. Pharmac. 72, 383 (1977).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. D. Rudzik, J. B. Hester, A. H. Tang, R. N. Straw and W. Friis. In: The Benzodiazepines, p. 285. S. Garattini, E. Mussini and L. O. Randall, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. W. Dawson, S. G. Jue and R. N. Brogden: Drugs 27, 132 (1984).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    R. Nakajima, Y. Take, R. Moriya, Y. Saji, T. Yui Y. Nagawa: Jap. J. Pharmac. 27,497(1971)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. J. Greenblatt, M. Divoll, L. J. Moschitto and R. I. Shader: J. Chromat. 225, 202 (1981).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Mancinelli, G. Guiso, S. Garattini, R. Urso and S. Caccia: Xenobiotica 15, 257 (1985).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Y. Kanai: Xenobiotica 4, 441 (1974).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    H. Kitagawa, Y. Esumi, S. Kurosawa, S. Sekine and T. Yokoshima: Xenobiotica 9, 429 (1979).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. T. Smith, M. J. Eadi, T. O’Rourke Brophy: Eur. J. clin. Pharmac. 19, 271 (1981).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    W. Haefely, L. Pieri, P. Pole and R. Schaffner. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 55/11, Psychotropic Agents, p. 13. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1981.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    I. Geller: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 149, 243 (1964).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    W. Haefely, E. P. Bonetti, W. P. Burkard, R. Cumin, J.-P. Laurent, H. Mohler, L. Pieri, P. Pole, J. G. Richards, R. Schaffner R. Scherschlicht. In: The Benzodiazepines: From Molecular Biology to Clinical Practice, p. 137. E. Costa, Ed., Raven Press, New York 1983Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. Karobath, P. Supavilai P. A. Borea. In: Benzodiazepine Recognition Site Ligands: Biochemistry and Pharmacology, p. 37. G. Biggio E. Costa, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1983Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Ya. Korneyev: Eur. J. Pharmac. 90, 227 (1983).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    H. Mohler, W. P. Burkard, H. H. Keller, J. G. Richards and W. Haefely: J. Neurochem. 37,714(1981).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    H. Ladinsky, S. Consolo, C. Bellantuono and S. Garattini. In: Handbook of Biological Psychiatry, part. IV. Brain Mechanisms and Abnormal Behavior-Chemistry, p. 825. H. M. Van Praag, Ed., Dekker, New York 1981.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Bizzi, M. R. Ricci, E. Veneroni, M. Amato and S. Garattini: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 36, 134 (1984).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    P. F. Morgan, H. G. E. Lloyd and T. W. Stone: Eur. J. Pharmac. 87, 121 (1983).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    T. Mennini, S. Caccia, A. Ceci, S. Garattini, P. Masturzo and M. Salmona: FEBS Lett. 173, 255 (1984).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. Möhler, T. Okada and S. J. Enna: Brain Res. 156, 391 (1978).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    H. R. Wagner, A. Reches and S. Fahn: Neuropharmacology 24, 953 (1985).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. J. Nutt, P. J. Cowen, M. Franklin, P. Murdock, B. Gosden and S. Fraser: Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 24, 1491 (1986).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    B. E. Suranyi-Cadotte, T. V. Dam and R. Quirion: Eur. J. Pharmac. 106, 673 (1984).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. L. Barbaccia, L. Ravizza and E. Costa: J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 236, 307 (1986).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S. Garattini, S. Caccia and T. Mennini. In: Medicinal Chemistry Advances, p. 171. F. G. De Las Heras and S. Vega, Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford 1981.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    T. Mennini, S. Caccia, S. Garattini. In: Receptors in Pharmacology, p. 125. A. Assandri S. Fumero Eds., Istituto A. Marxer-RBM, Ivrea 1986Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    T. Mennini S. Garattini. In: Benzodiazepine Recognition Site Ligands: Biochemistry and Pharmacology, p. 189. G. Biggio E. Costa, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1983Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    T. Mennini, S. Cotecchia, S. Caccia and S. Garattini: Pharmac. Biochem. Behav. 16, 529 (1982).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Babbini, M. Gaiardi and M. Bartoletti: Life Sci. 25, 15 (1979).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    H.-H. Frey and W. Loscher: Pharmacology 25, 154 (1982).Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    H.-H. Frey and W. Loscher: Pharmacology 25, 154 (1982).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    L. Stein, C. D. Wise and B. D. Berger. In: The Benzodiazepines, p. 299. S. Garattini, E. Mussini and L. O. Randall, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1973.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    I. Geller, R. J. Hartmann, D. J. Croy and B. Haber: Res. commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmac. 7, 165 (1974).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. C. Robichaud and K. L. Sledge: Life Sci. 8pt 1, 965 (1969).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    L. Stein, C. D. Wise and J. D. Belluzzi. In: Mechanism of Action of Benzodiazepines, p. 29. E. Costa and P. Greengards, Eds., Raven Press, New York 1975.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    M. H. Aprison and C. B. Ferster: J. Neurochem. 6, 350 (1961).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    P. B. Bradley, G. Engel, W. Feniuk, J. R. Fozard, P. P. A. Humphrey, D. N. Middlemiss, E. J. Mylecharane, B. P. Richardson and P. R. Saxena: Neuro-pharmacology 25, 563 (1986).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    S. J. Peroutka and S. H. Snyder: Mol. Pharmac. 16, 687 (1979).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    N. W. Pedigo, H. I. Yamamura and D. L. Nelson: J. Neurochem. 36, 220 (1981).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Pazos, D. Hoyer and J. M. Palacios: Eur. J. Pharmac. 106, 539 (1984).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    A. Pazos and J. M. Palacios: Brain Res. 346, 205 (1985).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. Pazos, R. Cortés and J. M. Palacios: Brain Res. 346, 231 (1985).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    D. N. Middlemiss and J. R. Fozard: Eur. J. Pharmac. 90, 151 (1983).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. W. Fuller, H. D. Snoddy B. B. Molloy: J. Pharmac. exp. Ther. 239, 454 (1986)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    S. Garattini, S. Caccia and T. Mennini: J. Clin. Psychiatry 43, 12 sec. 2, 19 (1982).Google Scholar
  94. 93a.
    T. Mennini, M. Gobbi, F. Ponzio and S. Garattini: Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 279, 40 (1986).Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    B. A. Weissmann, J. E. Barrett, L. S. Brady, J. M. Witkin, W. B. Mendelson, S. M. Paul and P. Skolnick: Drug Rev. Res. 4, 83 (1984).Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    W. F. Seidel, S. A. Cohen, N. G. Bliwise and W. C. Dement: Psychopharmacology 57, 371 (1985).Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    K. L. Goa and A. Ward: Drugs 52, 114 (1986).Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    H. L. Goldberg and R. J. Finnerty: Am. J. Psychiatry 136, 1184 (1979).Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    T. Glaser and J. Traber: Eur. J. Pharmac. 88, 137 (1983).Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    J. A. Engel, S. Hjorth, K. Svensson, A. Carlsson and S. Liljequist: Eur. J. Pharmac. 105, 365 (1984).Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    A. S. Eison and F. D. Yocca: Eur. J. Pharmac. 1ll 389 (1985).Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    J. Traber, M. A. Davies, W. U. Dompert, T. Glaser, T. Schuurman and P. R. Seidel: Brain Res. Bull. 12, 741 (1984).Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    J. Traber, M. A. Davies, W. U. Dompert, T. Glaser, T. Schuurman and P. R. Seidel: Brain Res. Bull. 12, 741 (1984).Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    M. E. Trulson and K. Arasteh: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 38, 380 (1986).Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    C. T. Dourish, P. H. Hutson and G. Curzon: Trends Pharmacological Science 7,212(1986).Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    S. Hjorth and A. Carlsson: Eur. J. Pharmac. 83, 299 (1982).Google Scholar
  107. 105a.
    W. U. Dompert, T. Glaser and J. Traber: Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmac. 328, 467 (1985).Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    S. Caccia, M. Muglia, A. Mancinelli and S. Garattini: Xenobiotica 13, 147 (1983)Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    R. E. Gammans, K. E. Lister, C. J. Marvel, R. F. Mayol and J. A. LaBudde: Fed. Proc. 40, 634 (1981).Google Scholar
  110. 108.
    R. E. Gammans, R. F. Mayol, J. A. LaBudde and G. P. Casten: Fed. Proc. 41, 1335 (1982).Google Scholar
  111. 109.
    R. E. Gammans, R. F. Mayol and M. S. Eison: Fed. Proc. 42, 377 (1983).Google Scholar
  112. 110.
    S. Caccia, M. H. Fong and G. Guiso: Xenobiotica 15, 835 (1985).Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    R. F. Mayol, D. S. Adamson, R. E. Gammans and J. A. LaBudde: Clin. Pharmac. Ther. 37, 210 (1985).Google Scholar
  114. 112.
    S. Caccia, G. L. Vigano, G. Mingardi, S. Garattini, R. E. Gammans, M. Placchi, R. F. Mayol and M. Pfeffer: Clin. Pharmaco Kinet., submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  115. 113.
    R. F. Mayol, R. E. Gammans, A. V. Mackenthum L. F. Soyka: Clin. Res. 31, 631 A (1983)Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    W. W. Bullen, D. L. Bivens, R. E. Gammans and J. A. LaBudde: Fed. Proc. 44, 1123 (1985).Google Scholar
  117. 115.
    I. Geller and R. J. Hartman: J. Clin. Psychiatry 43, 12 sec. 2, 25 (1982).Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    L. A. Riblet, D. P. Taylor, M. S. Eison and H. C. Stanton: J. Clin. Psychiatry 43, 12 sec. 2, 11 (1982).Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    T. Yamamoto, T. Watanabe, S. Shibata and S. Ueki: Jap. J. Pharmac. 29, suppl., 41P (1979).Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    M. S. Eison and A. S. Eison: Drug Dev. Res. 4, 109 (1984).Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    D. P. Taylor, L. E. Allen, J. A. Becker, M. Crane, D. K. Hyslop and L. A. Riblet: Drug Dev. Res. 4, 95 (1984).Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    N. R. Oakley and B. J. Jones: Eur. J. Pharmac. 87, 499 (1983).Google Scholar
  123. 121.
    B. A. Weissman, J. E. Barrett, L. S. Brady, J. M. Witkin, W. B. Mendelson, S. M. Paul and P. Skolnick: Drug Dev. Res. 4, 83 (1984).Google Scholar
  124. 122.
    M. S. Eison, C. P. VanderMaelen, G. K. Matheson, A. S. Eison and D. P. Taylor: Soc. Neurosci. 9/435, abst. 128. 4 (1983).Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    E. C. Tompkins, A. J. Clemento, D. P. Taylor and J. L. Perhach Jr.: Res. Commun. Psychol. Psychiatry Behav. 5, 337 (1980).Google Scholar
  126. 124.
    W. Kozak, L. Valzelli and S. Garattini: Eur. J. Pharmac. 105, 323 (1984).Google Scholar
  127. 125.
    W. Kostowski, L. Valzelli and W. Kozak: Eur. J. Pharmac. 91, 329 (1983).Google Scholar
  128. 126.
    S. J. Grant, Y. H. Huang and D. E. Redmond Jr.: Life Sci. 27, 2231 (1980).Google Scholar
  129. 127.
    M. K. Sanghera, B. A. McMillen and D. C. German: Eur. J. Pharmac. 86, 107 (1983).Google Scholar
  130. 128.
    M. K. Sanghera and D. C. German: J. Neural Transm. 57, 267 (1983).Google Scholar
  131. 129.
    S. Caccia, I. Conti, G. Vigano and S. Garattini: Pharmacology 33, 46 (1986).Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    L. E. Allen, H. C. Ferguson and R. H. Cox Jr.: Arzneimittel-Forsch. 24, 917 (1974).Google Scholar
  133. 131.
    M. Stanley, A. Russo and S. Gershon: Res. Commun. Psychol. Psychiatry Behav. 4, 127 (1979).Google Scholar
  134. 132.
    B. A. McMillen and L. A. Mattiace: J. Neural Transm. 57, 255 (1983).Google Scholar
  135. 133.
    B. A. McMillen and C. C. McDonald: Neuropharmacology 22, 273 (1983).Google Scholar
  136. 134.
    M. Cimino, F. Ponzio, G. Achilli, G. Vantini, C. Perego, S. Algeri and S. Garattini: Biochem. Pharmac. 32, 1069 (1983).Google Scholar
  137. 135.
    P. L. Wood, N. P. V. Nair, S. Lai and P. Etienne: Life Sci. 33, 269 (1983).Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    B. A. McMillen, M. K. Sanghera, R. T. Matthews and D. C. German: Soc. Neurosci. 7/575, abst. 184. 11 (1981).Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    H. C. Stanton, D. P. Taylor and L. A. Riblet. In: The Neurobiology of the Nucleus Accumbens, p. 316. R. B. Chronister and J. F. DeFrance, Eds., Haer Institute, Brunswick 1981.Google Scholar
  140. 138.
    D. P. Taylor, E. M. Ashworth, J. A. Becker and D. K. Hyslop: Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 12, 280 (1981).Google Scholar
  141. 139.
    K. Kolasa, R. Fusi, S. Garattini, S. Consolo and H. Ladinsky: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 34, 314 (1982).Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    S. Consolo, H. Ladinsky and S. Bianchi: Eur. J. Pharmac. 33, 345 (1975).Google Scholar
  143. 141.
    S. Consolo, G. L. Forloni, S. Garattini, H. Ladinsky and A. S. Tirelli: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 31, 706 (1979).Google Scholar
  144. 142.
    A. S. Eison and F. D. Yocca: Eur. J. Pharmac. 111, 389 (1985).Google Scholar
  145. 143.
    G. Bianchi and S. Garattini: Eur. J. Pharmac., submitted for publication. .Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    P. Girai, P. Soubrie A. J. Puech: Eur. J. Pharmac. 134, 113 (1987)Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    R. B. Rastogi, R. A. Agarwal, Y. D. Lapierre and R. L. Singhal: Eur. J. Pharmac. 43, 91 (1977).Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    S. Garattini : Jap. J. Pharmac. 31 suppl., 29P (1981)Google Scholar
  149. 147.
    T. Mennini, E. Borroni, R. Samanin and S. Garattini: Neurochem. Int. 3, 289 (1981).Google Scholar
  150. 148.
    C. Bendotti, F. Borsini, M. G. Zanini, R. Samanin and S. Garattini: Pharmac. Res. Commun. 12, 567 (1980).Google Scholar
  151. 149.
    A. Jori, E. Dolfini, G. Tognoni and S. Garattini: J. Pharm. Pharmac. 25, 315 (1973).Google Scholar
  152. 150.
    C. Braestrup and M. Nielsen: Lancet 2, 1030 (1982).Google Scholar
  153. 151.
    S. D. Iversen: Arzneimittel-Forsch. 30, 862 (1980).Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    J. A. Gray . In: Theoretical and Experimental Bases of the Behaviour Therapies, p. 3. M. P. Feldman A. Broadhurst, Eds., Wiley, London 1976Google Scholar
  155. 153.
    J. A. Gray: Br. J. Psychol. 69, 417 (1978).Google Scholar
  156. 154.
    R. L. Isaacson and K. H. Pribram, Eds..: The Hippocampus, vols. 1,2. Plenum Press, New York 1975.Google Scholar
  157. 155.
    R. Y. Moore, In: The Hippocampus, Vol. 1, p. 215. R. L. Isaacson K. H. Pribram, Eds., Plenum Press, New York 1975Google Scholar
  158. 156.
    M. E. Trulson, D. W. Preussler, G. A. Howell and C. J. Frederickson: Neu-ropharmacology 21, 1045 (1982).Google Scholar
  159. 157.
    S. E. Robinson: Life Sci. 32, 345 (1983).Google Scholar
  160. 158.
    D.S. Charney and D. E. Redmond Jr.: Neuropharmacology 22, 1531 (1983).Google Scholar
  161. 159.
    U. Busto, E. M. Sellers, C. A. Naranjo, H. Cappell, M. Sanchez-Craig and K. Sykora: New Engl. J. Med. 315, 854 (1986).Google Scholar
  162. 159a.
    Editorial: Lancet 1, 78 (1987).Google Scholar
  163. 160.
    E. Schweizer, K. Rickels and I. Lucki: New Engl. J. Med. 314, 719 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Mennini
    • 1
  • S. Caccia
    • 1
  • S. Garattini
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly

Personalised recommendations