Recently, Laitinen and his co-workers [1] have demonstrated a significant increase in the number of mast cells (p < 0.001), lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages (p < 0.5) in the bronchial epithelium of patients with newly diagnosed asthma. Others also have observed a 5-to 6-fold increase in the percentage of mast cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of mild atopic asthmatics as compared with that in the healthy subjects [2]. These observations demonstrate the presence of allergic airway inflammatory processes even at the very early stages of asthma. Mast cell activation and histamine secretion not only play a pivotal role in the initiation of allergic airway inflammation [3, 4] but may also sustain chronic inflammatory processes by upregulating self induction of interleukin (IL)-1β through histamine release [5], expression of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on the airway epithelium [6] and interactions with cytokines [7]. Mast cell activation resulting in histamine secretion, generation of cytokines and leukotrienes as well as subsequent release of neuropeptides and other mediators and their possible synergistic interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute as well as chronic allergic inflammatory processes such as rhinitis and asthma in the upper and lower airways [1–7].


Mast Cell Airway Smooth Muscle Allergy Clin Immunol Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Tracheal Smooth Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Laitinen LA, Laitinen A, Haahtela T. Airway mucosal inflammation even in patients with newly diagnosed asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 697–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wardlaw AJ, Dunnette S, Gleich GJ, et al. Eosinophils and mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage in subjects with mild asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 62–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pesci A, Foresi A, Bertorelli G, et al. Histochemical characteristics and degranulation and mast cells in epithelium and lamina propria of bronchial biopsies from asthmatic and normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 684–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gibson PG, Allen CJ, Yang JP, et al. Intraepithelial mast cells in allergic and nonallergic asthma. Assessment using bronchial brushings. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148: 80–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vannier E, Dinarello CA. Histamine enhances interleukin (IL)-1-induced IL-1 gene expression and protein synthesis via H2 receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 281–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vignola AM, Campbell AM, Chanez P, et al. Activation by histamine of bronchial epithelial cells from nonasthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1993; 9: 411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Falus A, Meretey K. Histamine: an early messenger in inflammatory and immune reactions. Immuno Today 1992; 13: 154–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chand N. Distribution and classification of airway histamine receptors. The physiological significance of histamine H2-receptors. Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy 1980; 17: 103–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eyre P, Chand N. Histamine receptor mechanisms of the lung. In: Ganellin CR, Parson ME, editors. Pharmacology of Histamine Receptors. London, England: John Wright & Son, Ltd. 1982: 298–322.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Joad J, Casale TB. Histamine and airway caliber. Ann Allergy 1988; 61: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chand N, Diamantis W, Sofia RD. Airway histamine receptors and their significance in allergic lung diseases. In: Agrawall DK, Townley RG. Airway smooth muscle: modulation of receptor and response. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press 1990: 259–269.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hill SJ. Distribution, properties and functional characteristics of three classes of histamine receptor. Pharmacol Rev 1990; 42: 45–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ash ASF, Schild HO. Receptors mediating some actions of histamine. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1966; 27: 427–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chand N, Eyre P. Classification and biological distribution of histamine receptor subtypes. Agents and Actions 1975; 5: 277–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Black JW, Duncan WAM, Durant CJ, et al. Definition and antagonism of histamine H2-receptors. Nature 1972; 236: 385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arrang JM, Garbarg M, Schwartz JC. Auto-inhibition of brain histamine release mediated by a novel class (H3) of histamine receptor. Nature 1983; 302: 832–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arrang JM, Garbarg M, Lancelot JC, et al. Highly potent and selective ligands for histamine H3-receptors. Nature 1987; 327: 117–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ichinose M, Stretton CD, Schwartz JC, Barnes PJ. Histamine H3-receptors inhibit cholinergic bronchoconstriction in guinea pig airways. Br J Pharmacol 1989; 97: 13–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ichinose M, Barnes PJ. Inhibitory histamine H3-receptors on cholinergic nerves in human airways. Eur J Pharmacol 1989; 163: 383–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ichinose M, Belvisi MG, Barnes PJ. Histamine H3-receptors inhibit neurogenic microvascular leakage in airways. J Appl Physiol 1990; 68: 21–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burgaud JL, Javellaud J, Oudart N. Bronchodilator action of an agonist for histamine H3-receptors in guinea pig perfused bronchioles and lung parenchymal strips. Lung 1992; 170: 95–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chand N, Dhawan BN, Srimal RD, et al. Reactivity of airway smooth muscles to bronchoactive agents in langur monkey. J Appl Physiol 1981; 50: 513–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carswell H, Nahorski SR. Distribution and characteristics of histamine H1-receptors in guinea-pig airways identified by [3H]mepyramine. Eur J Pharmacol 1982; 81: 301–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Driver AG, Mustafa SJ. Correlation of histamine H1 receptor function and [3H]mepyramine binding in porcine tracheal tissue. Eur J Pharmacol 1987; 139: 287–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Casale TB, Rodbard D, Kaliner M. Characterization of histamine H-1 receptors on human peripheral lung. Biochem Pharmacol 1985; 34: 3285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kenakin TP, Beek D. A quantitative analysis of histamine H2-receptor-mediated relaxation of rabbit trachea. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1982; 220: 353–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eyre P. Histamine H2-receptors in the sheep bronchus and cat trachea: the action of burimamide. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 1973; 48: 321–3.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chand N, Eyre P. Spasmolytic action of histamine in airway smooth muscle of horse. Agents and Actions 1978; 8: 191–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chand N, Dhawan BN, Srimal RC, et al. Reactivity of trachea, bronchi, and lung strips to histamine and carbachol in rhesus monkeys. J Appl Physiol 1980; 49: 729–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Florio C, Flezar M, Martin JG, Heisler S. Identification of adenylate cyclase-coupled histamine H2-receptors in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle cells in culture and the effect of dexamethasone. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1992; 7: 582–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Foreman JC, Norris DB, Rising TJ, Weber SE. The binding of [3H]-tioidine to homogenates of guinea-pig lung parenchyma. Br J Pharmacol 1985; 86: 475–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chand N, DeRoth L. Dual histamine receptor mechanism in guinea-pig lung. Pharmacology 1979; 19: 185–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dunlop LS, Smith AP. The effect of histamine antagonists on antigen-induced contractions of sensitized human bronchus in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 1977; 59: 475P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marthan R, Crevel H, Guenard H, Savineau JP. Responsiveness to histamine in human sensitized airway smooth muscle. Respir Physiol 1992; 90: 239–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    White JP, Mills J, Eiser NM. Comparison of the effects of histamine H1 and H2-receptor agonists on large and small airways in normal and asthmatic subjects. Br J Dis Chest 1987; 81: 155–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Duncan PG, Brink C, Adolphson RL, Douglas JS. Cyclic nucleotides and contraction/ relaxation in airway muscle: H1 and H2 agonists and antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1980; 215: 434–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shelhamer JH, Marom Z, Kaliner M. Immunologic and neuropharmacologic stimulation of mucous glycoprotein release from human airways in vitro. J Clin Invest 1980; 66: 1400–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vincenc K, Black J, Shaw J. Relaxation and contraction responses to histamine in the human lung parenchymal strip. Eur J Pharmacol 1984; 98: 201–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shigekatsu K, Kohji O, Takeshi N, et al. Dimaprit, a histamine H2-agonist, inhibits anaphylactic histamine release from mast cells and the decreased release is restored by thioperamide (H3-antagonist), but not by cimetidine (H2-antagonist). Jap J Pharmacol 1993; 62: 75–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ichinose M, Barnes PJ. Histamine H3-receptors modulate antigen-induced broncho-constriction in guinea pigs. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86: 491–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barnes PJ. Neurogenic inflammation and asthma. J Asthma 1992; 29: 165–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nieber K, Baumgarten C, Rathsack R, et al. Effect of azelastine on substance P content in bronchoalveolar and nasal lavage fluids of patients with allergic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1991; 23: 69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burgaud JL, Oudart N. Effect of an histaminergic H3 agonist on the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic contraction in guinea-pig perfused bronchioles. J Pharm Pharmacol 1993; 44: 955–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ichinose M, Barnes PJ. Histamine H3-receptors modulate nonadrenergic noncholinergic neural bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 1989; 174: 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    O’Connor BJ, Lecomte JM, Barnes PJ. Effect of an inhaled histamine H3-receptor agonist on airway responses to sodium metabisulphite in asthma. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 35. 55–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hey JA, del Prado M, Egan RW, et al. (R)-α-Methylhistamine augments neural, cholinergic bronchospasm in guinea pigs by histamine H1 receptor activation. Eur J Pharmacol 1992; 211: 421–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Daykin K, Widdop S, Hall IP. Control of histamine induced inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in cultured human tracheal smooth muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 246: 135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Marmy N, Mottas J, Durand J. Signal transduction in smooth muscle cells from human airways. Respir Physiol 1993; 91: 295–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harris RA, Hanrahan JW. Histamine stimulates a biphasic calcium response in the human tracheal epithelial cell line CF/T43. Am J Physiol 1993; 34: C781–91.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Clarke LL, Paradisco AM, Boucher RC. Histamine-induced Cl- secretion in human nasal epithelium: responses of apical and basolateral membranes. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: C1190–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chediak AD, Elsasser S, Csete ME, et al. Effect of histamine on tracheal mucosal perfusion, water content and airway smooth muscle in sheep. Respir Physiol 1991; 84: 231–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leurs R, Go GNL, Bast A, Timmerman H. Involvement of protein kinase C in the histamine H1-receptor mediated contraction of guinea-pig lung parenchymal strips. Agents and Actions 1989; 27: 180–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kotlikoff MI, Murray RK, Reynolds EE. Histamine-induced calcium release and phorbol antagonism in cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol 1987; 253: C561–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Murray RK, Bennett CF, Fluharty SJ, Kotlikoff MI. Mechanism of phorbol ester inhibition of histamine-induced IP3 formation in cultured airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol 1989; 257: L209–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Blackwell GJ, Fowler RJ, Nijkamp FP, Vane JR. Phospholipase A2 activity of guinea pig isolated perfused lungs: stimulation, and inhibition by anti-inflammatory steroids. Br J Pharmacol 1978; 62: 79–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hall IP, Donaldson J, Hill SJ. Inhibition of histamine-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis by agents which increase cyclic AMP levels in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 1989; 97: 603–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hall IP, Hill SJ. β-adrenoceptor stimulation inhibits histamine-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Br J Pharmacol 1988; 95: 1204–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Obianime AW, Hirst SJ, Dale MM. The effect of smooth muscle relaxants working through different transduction mechanisms on the phorbol dibutyrate-induced contraction of the guinea-pig lung parenchymal strip: possible relevance for asthma. Pulm Pharmacol 1989; 2: 191–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leurs R, Brozius MM, Jansen W, et al. Histamine H1-receptor-mediated cyclic GMP production in guinea-pig lung tissue is an L-arginine-dependent process. Biochem Pharmacol 1991; 42: 271–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nijkamp FP, Der Linde HJ, Folkerts G. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors induce airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea pig in vivo and in vitro. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148: 727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Persson MG, Friberg SG, Hedqvist P, Gustafsson LE. Endogenous nitric oxide counteracts antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 249: R7–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Guc MO, Ilhan M, Kayaalp SO. Epithelium-dependent relaxation of guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle by histamine: evidence for non-H1 and-H2-histamine receptors. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 1988; 296: 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mitchell HW, Yu LL. Attenuation of tracheal smooth muscle contraction by connective tissue. Eur J Pharmacol 1985; 118: 171–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mitchell RW, Antonissen LA, Kepron W, et al. Effect of atropine on the hyperresponsiveness of ragweed-sensitized canine tracheal smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1986; 236: 803–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shore SA, Bai TR, Wang CG, Martin JG. Central and local cholinergic components of histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs. J Appl Physiol 1985; 58: 443–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hulbert WC, McLean T, Wiggs B, et al. Histamine dose-response curves in guinea pigs. J Appl Physiol 1985; 58: 625–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Braunstein G, Labat C, Brunelleschi S, et al. Evidence that the histamine sensitivity and responsiveness of guinea-pig isolated trachea are modulated by epithelial prostaglandin E2 production. Br J Pharmacol 1988; 95: 300–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Knight DA, Stewart GA, Thompson PJ. Histamine tachyphylaxis in human airway smooth muscle. The role of H2-receptors and the bronchial epithelium. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 137–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gray PR, Derksen FJ, Broadstone RV, et al. Decreased airway mucosal prostaglandin E2 production during airway obstruction in an animal model of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 586–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Liu S, Yacoub M, Barnes PJ. Effect of histamine on human bronchial arteries in vitro. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 1990; 342: 90–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Michoud MC, Lelorier J, Amyot R. Factors modulating the interindividual variability of airway responsiveness to histamine. The influence of H1 and H2 receptors. Bull Eur Physiopath Respir 1981; 17: 807–21.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Brink C, Duncan PG, Midzenski M, Douglas JS. Response and sensitivity of female guinea-pig respiratory tissues to agonists during ontogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1980; 215: 426–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hayashi S, Toda N. Age-related alterations in the response of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle to agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1980; 214: 675–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Folkerts G, Verheyen A, Janssen M, Nijkamp FP. Virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in the guinea pig can be transferred by bronchoalveolar cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 90: 364–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hay DWP, Raeburn D, Farmer SG, et al. Epithelium modulates the reactivity of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pig airway smooth muscle. Life Sci 1986; 38: 2461–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fedan JS, Nutt ME, Frazer DG. Reactivity of guinea-pig isolated trachea to methacholine, histamine and isoproterenol applied serosally versus mucosally. Eur J Pharmacol 1990; 190: 337–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chand N, Sofia RD. Potential therapeutic usefulness of anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody in asthma. Drugs of Today 1993; 29: 477–85.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Suzuki H, Morita K, Koriyama H. Innervation and properties of the smooth muscle of the dog trachea. Jap J Physiol 1976; 26: 303–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sekizawa K, Nakazawa H, Ohrui T, et al. Histamine N-methyltransferase modulates histamine-and antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs in vivo. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 92–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Secher C, Kirkegaard J, Borum P, et al. Significance of H1 and H2 receptors in the human nose: rationale for topical use of combined antihistamine preparations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 70: 211–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Naclerio RM. The effect of antihistamines on the immediate allergic response, a comparative review. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993; 108: 723–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Badhwar AK, Druce HM. Allergic rhinitis. The Medical Clinics of North America 1992; 76: 789–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sherwood JE, Hutt DA, Kreutner W, et al. A magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of histamine-mediated allergic response in the guinea pig nasopharynx. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 92: 435–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guerzon GM, Pare PD, Michoud MC, Hogg JC. The number and distribution of mast cells in monkey lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 119: 59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jarjour NN, Calhoun WJ, Schwartz LB, Busse WW. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with increased airway obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144: 83–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dugas B, Arrock M, Czarlewski W, Bousquet J. Activation of membrane markers from purified human eosinophils by histamine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93: A167.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chand N, Hess FG, Nolan K, et al. Aeroallergen-induced immediate asthmatic responses and late-phase associated pulmonary eosinophilia in the guinea pig: Effect of methylprednisolone and mepyramine. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1990; 91: 311–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Santing RE, Schraa EO, Wachters A, et al. Role of histamine in allergen-induced asthmatic reactions, bronchial hyperreactivity and inflammation in unrestrained guinea pigs. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 254: 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chand N, Diamantis W, Mahoney TP, Sofia RD. Allergic responses and subsequent development of airway hyperreactivity to cold provocation in the rat trachea: pharmacological modulation. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 150: 95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chand N, Mahoney TP, Diamantis W, Sofia RD. Induction of airway hyperreactivity to cold provocation by Bay K-8644 and chemical mediators in ferret trachea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 419.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Janssens MML, Howarth PH. The antihistamines of the nineties. Clin Rev Allergy 1993; 11: 111–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chand N, Sofia RD. Novel T cell modulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-asthma activities of azelastine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 91: 163.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Townley RG. Antiallergic properties of the second-generation H1 antihistamines during the early and late reactions to antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 90: 720–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Campbell AM, Bousquet J. Anti-allergic activity of H1 blockers. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1993; 101: 308–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Barnes JC, Brown JD, Clarke NP, et al. Pharmacological activity of VUF 9153, an isothiourea histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1993; 250: 147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naresh Chand
    • 1
  • R. Duane Sofia
    • 1
  1. 1.Wallace LaboratoriesDivision of Carter-Wallace Inc.CranburyUSA

Personalised recommendations