Advertisement

The threshold of age in exercise and antioxidants action

  • Abraham Z. Reznick
  • Eric H. Witt
  • Michael Silbermann
  • Lester Packer
Part of the EXS book series (EXS, volume 62)

Summary

Physical activity and exercise are important factors in determining the quality of life in old animals and humans. With age there is a slow but significant reduction in muscle mass and ability to perform certain physical activities. This may be due to changes with the age of muscle composition and protein turnover, as well as decrease of trophic influence in neural control of muscles of old individuals. Exercise in general was shown to improve muscle performance even in old age. However a concept of threshold of age in exercise was advanced forward in the 1970s. Accordingly, the idea was that for a given exercise of a particular duration and intensity there is a certain age beyond which this exercise may not have a positive influence, but can become detrimental to the exercising animal or human.

Recent studies on the effect of antioxidants such as Vitamins C and E and selenium have shown that these agents could decrease the free radical associated muscle damage caused by extensive exercise. Thus, administration of these antioxidants especially vitamins C and E may reduce the oxidative damage due to exercise, and may alter the threshold of age by delaying it to an older age.

Keywords

Muscle Mass Protein Carbonyl Protein Turnover Skeletal Muscle Mass Extensive Exercise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aniansson, A., and Gustaffsson, E. (1981) Clin. Physiol. 1: 87–98.Google Scholar
  2. Davies, K. JK. A., Quintanila, A. T., Brooks, G. A., and Packer, L. (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 107: 1198–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dillard, C. J., Litov, R. E., and Tappel, A. C. (1978) Lipids 13: 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dillard, C. J., Litov, R. E., Savin, W. M., Dumeiin, E. E., and Tappel, A. L. (1978a) J. Appl. Physiol. 45: 927–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Edington, D. W., Consmas, A. C., and McCafferty, W. B. (1972) Exercise and longevity:Google Scholar
  6. Evidence for a threshold of age. J. Gerontol. 27: 341–346.Google Scholar
  7. Evans, W. J. (1980) Exercise and Muscle Metabollsm in the Elderly, in: Nutrition and Aging. Munro, H. and Hutchinson, A., eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 179–191.Google Scholar
  8. Fryer, J. H. (1960) Fedn. Proc. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 19: 327–335.Google Scholar
  9. Golden, M. H. N., and Waterlow, J. C. (1977) Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 53: 229–288.Google Scholar
  10. Goodrick, C. L. (1980) Gerontology 26: 22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hiramatsu, M., Velasio, R. D., and Packer, L. (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 179: 859–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Larsson, L., Sjodin, B., and Karfsson, J. (1978) Acta Physiol. Scand. 103: 31–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Larsson L. (1982) in: The Aging Motor System. Prozzoto, F. J., and Malete, G. J., eds. Praeger Inc., New York, pp. 60–67.Google Scholar
  14. Lavie, L., Reznick, A. Z., and Gershon, D. (1982) Biochem. J. 202: 47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. McCafferty, W. B., and Edington, D. W. (1974) Gerontologia 20: 44–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reznick, A. Z., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., and Gershon, D. (1982) Biochem. Med. 28: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reznick, A. Z., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., Gellerssen, B., and Gershon, D. (1983) Mech. Ageing Dev. 23: 253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Reznick, A. Z., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., Gershon, D., and Silbermann, M. (1989) in: Molecular Biology of Stress. Breznitz, S. and Zinder, O., eds. Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, pp. 223–240.Google Scholar
  19. Silbermann, M., Finkelbrand, S., Weiss, A., Gershon, D., and Reznick, A. (1983) Muscle and Nerve 6: 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Silbermann, M., Weiss, A., Reznick, A. Z., Eilam, Y., Szydel, N., and Gershon, D. (1987) Comp. Gerontol. 1: 45.Google Scholar
  21. Simon-Schass, I., and Pabst, H. (1988) Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 58: 49–54.Google Scholar
  22. Steinhagen-Thiessen, L., Reznick A., and Hilz, H. (1980) Mech. Ageing Dev. 12: 231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., Reznick A., and Hilz, H. (1981) Mech. Ageing Dev. 16: 363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., Reznick A. Z. (1987) Gerontology 33: 14–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Witt, E. H., Reznick, A. Z., Viguie, C. A., Starke-Reed, P., and Packer, L. (1992) J. Nutr. 122: 766–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Young, V. R., Gersovitz, M., and Munro, H. N. (1981) in: Nutritional Approaches to Aging Research. Moment, G. B. ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 48–75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Z. Reznick
    • 1
  • Eric H. Witt
    • 2
  • Michael Silbermann
    • 1
  • Lester Packer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Morphological Sciences, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and the Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical SciencesTechnion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations