Anticarcinogenic activities of carotenoids in animals and cellular systems
A large number of studies have indicated that carotenoid pigments act as anticarcinogenic agents in animals treated ’with either ultraviolet light, ultraviolet light with chemicals, or with chemical carcinogens alone. Although pharmacological doses of cartenoids were used in the early experiments, more recent evidence indicates that relatively small doses can be effective. These studies have been complemented by investigations in bacteria and mammalian tissue, either in cell culture or in organ culture, where it has been demonstrated that various carotenoid pigments can prevent mutagenesis, genotoxic effects, or malignant transformation. It would appear that these effects are intrinsic to the carotenoid molecule, and not necessarily due to the metabolic conversion to retinoids. Partially based on these observations, it has been suggested that carotenoid pigments may function as chemopreventive agents for reducing the risk of cancer in humans. Numerous studies are underway to test this hypothesis.
KeywordsSalivary Gland Tumor Carotenoid Pigment Cheek Pouch Retinyl Palmitate Retinyl Acetate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Basu, T. K., Temple, N. J., and Hodgson, A. M. (1988) Vitamin A, beta-carotene and cancer, in: Nutrition, Growth, and Cancer. G. P. Tryfiades and K. N. Prasad, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 217–228.Google Scholar
- Bertram, J. S., Rundhaug, J. E., and Pung, A. (1990) Carotenoids inhibit chemically- and physically-induced neoplastic transformation during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis, in: Nutrients and Cancer Prevention. K. N. Prasad and F. L. Jr. Meyskens, eds. Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp. 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cerutti, P. A. (1988) Oxidant tumor promoters, in: Growth Factors, Tumor Promoters, and Cancer Genes. N. H. Coburn, H. L. Moses and E. J. Stanbridge, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 239–247.Google Scholar
- Hibino, T., Shimpo, K., Kawai, K., Chihara, T., Maruta, K., Arai, M., Nagatsu, T., and Fujita, K. (1990) Polyamine levels of urine and erythrocytes on inhibition of DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis by topical beta-carotene. Biogenic Amines 7: 209–216.Google Scholar
- Krinsky, N. I. (1989) Carotenoids in medicine, in: Carotenoids: Chemistry and Biology. N. I. Krinsky, M. M. Mathews-Roth and R. F. Taylor, eds. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 279–292.Google Scholar
- Okuzumi, J., Nishino, H., Murakoshi, M., Iwashima, A., Tanaka, Y., Yamane, T., Fujita, Y., and Takahashi, T. (1990) Inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid, on N-myc expression and cell cycle progression in human malignant tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 55: 75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pedrick, M. S., Turton, J. A., and Hicks, R. M. (1990) The incidence of bladder cancer in carcinogen-treated rats is not substantially reduced by dietary jS-carotene (BC). Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 60: 189–190.Google Scholar
- Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Adreoni, L., Santagati, G., Arnaboldi, A., and Bermond, P. (1984) 8-Methoxypsoralen photocarcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary carotenoids. Preliminary results. Med. Biol. Environ. 12: 533–537.Google Scholar
- Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Arnaboldi, A., and Andreoni, L. (1981) Prevention of the benzo[a]pyrene photocarcinogenic effect by -carotene and canthaxanthin. Med. Biol. Environ. 9: 113–120.Google Scholar
- Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Arnaboldi, A., Andreoni, L., and Bermond, P. (1983) Ben- zo[a]pyrene carcinogenicity and its prevention by carotenoids. Relevance in social medicine, in: Modulation and Mediation of Cancer by Vitamins. F. L. Meyskens and K. N. Prasad, eds. Karger, Basel, pp. 81–88.Google Scholar
- Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Ravetto, C., Arnaboldi, A., Santagati, G., and Andreoni, L. (1985) Supplemental carotenoids prevent MNNG induced cancer in rats. Med. Biol. Environ. 13: 745–750.Google Scholar
- Santamaria, L., Bianchi, L., Bianchi, A., Pizzala, R., Santagati, G., and Bermond, P. (1984) Photomutagenicity by 8-methoxypsoralen with and without singlet oxygen involvement and its prevention by beta-carotene. Relevance to the mechanism of 8-MOP photocarcinogenic- ity and to PUVA application. Med. Biol. Environ. 12: 541–546.Google Scholar