Advertisement

Anticarcinogenic activities of carotenoids in animals and cellular systems

  • Norman I. Krinsky
Part of the EXS book series (EXS, volume 62)

Summary

A large number of studies have indicated that carotenoid pigments act as anticarcinogenic agents in animals treated ’with either ultraviolet light, ultraviolet light with chemicals, or with chemical carcinogens alone. Although pharmacological doses of cartenoids were used in the early experiments, more recent evidence indicates that relatively small doses can be effective. These studies have been complemented by investigations in bacteria and mammalian tissue, either in cell culture or in organ culture, where it has been demonstrated that various carotenoid pigments can prevent mutagenesis, genotoxic effects, or malignant transformation. It would appear that these effects are intrinsic to the carotenoid molecule, and not necessarily due to the metabolic conversion to retinoids. Partially based on these observations, it has been suggested that carotenoid pigments may function as chemopreventive agents for reducing the risk of cancer in humans. Numerous studies are underway to test this hypothesis.

Keywords

Salivary Gland Tumor Carotenoid Pigment Cheek Pouch Retinyl Palmitate Retinyl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alam, B. S., and Alam, S. Q. (1987) The effect of different levels of dietary β-carotene on DMBA-induced salivary gland tumors. Nutr. Cancer 9: 93–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, B. S., Alam, S. Q., and Weir, J. C. Jr. (1988) Effects of excess vitamin A and canthaxanthin on salivary gland tumors. Nutr. Cancer 11: 233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alam, B. S., Alam, S. Q., Weir, J. C. Jr., and Gibson, W. A. (1984) Chemopreventive effects of β-carotene and 13-cw-retinoic acid on salivary gland tumors. Nutr. Cancer 6: 4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basu, T. K., Temple, N. J., and Hodgson, A. M. (1988) Vitamin A, beta-carotene and cancer, in: Nutrition, Growth, and Cancer. G. P. Tryfiades and K. N. Prasad, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 217–228.Google Scholar
  5. Basu, T. K., Temple, N. J., and Ng, J. (1987) Effect of dietary β-carotene on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 3: 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belisario, M. A., Pecce, R., Battista, C., Panza, N., and Paciho, G. (1985) Inhibition of cyclophosphamide mutagenicity by β -carotene. Biomed. Pharmacother. 39: 445–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertram, J. S., Pung, A., Churley, M., Kappock, T. J. IV, Wilkins, L. R., and Cooney, R. V. (1991) Diverse carotenoids protect against chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Carcinogenesis 12: 671–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertram, J. S., Rundhaug, J. E., and Pung, A. (1990) Carotenoids inhibit chemically- and physically-induced neoplastic transformation during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis, in: Nutrients and Cancer Prevention. K. N. Prasad and F. L. Jr. Meyskens, eds. Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp. 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerutti, P. A. (1988) Oxidant tumor promoters, in: Growth Factors, Tumor Promoters, and Cancer Genes. N. H. Coburn, H. L. Moses and E. J. Stanbridge, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 239–247.Google Scholar
  10. Edes, T. E., Gysbers, D. G., Buckley, C. S., and Thornton, W. H. Jr. (1991) Exposure to the carcinogen benzopyrene depletes tissue vitamin A: jS-carotene prevents depletion. Nutr. Cancer 15: 159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edes, T. E., Thornton, W. Jr., and Shah, J. (1989) β -Carotene and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in the rat: an effect of -carotene independent of vitamin A activity. J. Nutr. 119: 796–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. ElAttar, T. M. A., and Lin, H. S. (1991) Effects of retinoids and carotenoids on prostaglandin formation by oral squamous carcinoma cells. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, Essent. Fatty Acids 43: 175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gensler, H. L., Aickin, M., and Peng, Y. M. (1990) Cumulative reduction of primary skin tumor growth in UV-irradiated mice by the combination of retinyl palmitate and canthaxanthin. Cancer Lett. 53: 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gijare, P. S., Rao, K. V. K., and Bhide, S. V. (1990) Modulatory effects of snuff, retinoic acid, and J?-carotene on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis in relation to keratin expression. Nutr. Cancer 14: 253–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grubbs, C. J., Eto, I., Juliana, M. M., and Whitaker, L. M. (1991) Effect of canthaxanthin on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. Oncology 48: 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. He, Y., and Campbell, T. C. (1990) Effects of carotenoids on aflatoxin Bj-induced mutagenesis in S. typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98. Nutr. Cancer 13: 243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hibino, T., Shimpo, K., Kawai, K., Chihara, T., Maruta, K., Arai, M., Nagatsu, T., and Fujita, K. (1990) Polyamine levels of urine and erythrocytes on inhibition of DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis by topical beta-carotene. Biogenic Amines 7: 209–216.Google Scholar
  18. Imaida, K., Hirose, M., Yamaguchi, S., Takahashi, S., and Ito, N. (1990) Effects of naturally occurring antioxidants on combined 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-ini- tiated carcinogenesis in F344 male rats. Cancer Lett. 55: 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krinsky, N. I. (1989) Carotenoids in medicine, in: Carotenoids: Chemistry and Biology. N. I. Krinsky, M. M. Mathews-Roth and R. F. Taylor, eds. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 279–292.Google Scholar
  20. Krinsky, N. I. (1991) Effects of carotenoids in cellular and animal systems. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 238S-246S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lambert, L. A., Koch, W. H., Wamer, W. G., and Komhauser, A. (1990) Antitumor activity in skin of Skh and sencar mice by two dietary -carotene formulations. Nutr. Cancer 13: 213–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mathews-Roth, M. M. (1982) Antitumor activity of -carotene, canthaxanthin and phytoene. Oncology 39: 33–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mathews-Roth, M. M. (1983) Carotenoid pigment administration and delay in development of UV-B-induced tumors. Photochem. Photobiol. 37: 509–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mathews-Roth, M. M., and Krinsky, N. I. (1987) Carotenoids affect development of UV-B-induced skin cancer. Photochem. Photobiol. 46: 507–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mathews-Roth, M. M., Lausen, N., Drouin, G., Richter, A., and Krinsky, N. I. (1991) Effects of carotenoid administration on bladder cancer prevention. Oncology 48: 177–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Menon, R., Bartley, J., Som, S., and Banerjee, M. R. (1987). Metabolism of 7,12-dimethyl- benz[a] anthracene by mouse mammary cells in serum-free organ culture medium. Eur. J. Cancer Chn. Oncol. 23: 395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Okuzumi, J., Nishino, H., Murakoshi, M., Iwashima, A., Tanaka, Y., Yamane, T., Fujita, Y., and Takahashi, T. (1990) Inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid, on N-myc expression and cell cycle progression in human malignant tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 55: 75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pedrick, M. S., Turton, J. A., and Hicks, R. M. (1990) The incidence of bladder cancer in carcinogen-treated rats is not substantially reduced by dietary jS-carotene (BC). Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 60: 189–190.Google Scholar
  29. Peto, R., Doll, R. J., Buckley, J. D., and Sporn, M. B. (1981) Can dietary jS-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature 290: 201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Adreoni, L., Santagati, G., Arnaboldi, A., and Bermond, P. (1984) 8-Methoxypsoralen photocarcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary carotenoids. Preliminary results. Med. Biol. Environ. 12: 533–537.Google Scholar
  31. Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Arnaboldi, A., and Andreoni, L. (1981) Prevention of the benzo[a]pyrene photocarcinogenic effect by -carotene and canthaxanthin. Med. Biol. Environ. 9: 113–120.Google Scholar
  32. Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Arnaboldi, A., Andreoni, L., and Bermond, P. (1983) Ben- zo[a]pyrene carcinogenicity and its prevention by carotenoids. Relevance in social medicine, in: Modulation and Mediation of Cancer by Vitamins. F. L. Meyskens and K. N. Prasad, eds. Karger, Basel, pp. 81–88.Google Scholar
  33. Santamaria, L., Bianchi, A., Ravetto, C., Arnaboldi, A., Santagati, G., and Andreoni, L. (1985) Supplemental carotenoids prevent MNNG induced cancer in rats. Med. Biol. Environ. 13: 745–750.Google Scholar
  34. Santamaria, L., Bianchi, L., Bianchi, A., Pizzala, R., Santagati, G., and Bermond, P. (1984) Photomutagenicity by 8-methoxypsoralen with and without singlet oxygen involvement and its prevention by beta-carotene. Relevance to the mechanism of 8-MOP photocarcinogenic- ity and to PUVA application. Med. Biol. Environ. 12: 541–546.Google Scholar
  35. Schwartz, J., Shklar, G., Reid, S., and Trickier, D. (1988) Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliella Algae. Nutr. Cancer 11: 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schwartz, J., Suda, D., and Light, G. (1986) Beta carotene is associated with the regression of hamster buccal pouch carcinoma and the induction of tumor necrosis factor in macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 136: 1130–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartz, J. L., Flynn, E., and Shklar, G. (1990a) The effect of carotenoids on the antitumor immune response in vivo and in vitro with hamster and mouse immune effectors. Ann.-N.Y. Acad. Sci. 587: 92–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Schwartz, J. L., Singh, R. P., Teicher, B., Wright, J. E., Trites, D. H., and Shklar, G. (1990b) Induction of a 70KD protein associated with the selective cytoxicity of beta-carotene in human epidermal carcinoma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 169: 941–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Steinel, H. H., and Baker, R. S. U. (1990) Effects of -carotene on chemically-induced skin tumors in HRA/Skh hairless mice. Cancer Lett. 51: 163–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Suda, D., Schwartz, J., and Shklar, G. (1986) Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta-carotene. Carcinogenesis 7: 711–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Temple, N. J., and Basu, T. K. (1987) Protective effect of j3-carotene against colon tumors in mice. JNCI 78: 1211–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang, C.-J., Chou, M.-Y., and Lin, J.-K. (1989) Inhibition of growth and development of the transplantable C-6 glioma cells inoculated in rats by retinoids and carotenoids. Cancer Lett. 48: 135–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang, C.-J, Shiah, H.-S., and Lin, J.-K. (1991a) Modulatory effect of crocetin on aflatoxin Bj cytotoxicity and DNA adduct formation in C3H10T1/2 fibroblast cell. Cancer Lett. 56: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, C.-J., Shiow, S.-J., and Lin, J.-K. (1991b) Effects of crocetin on the hepatotoxicity and hepatic DNA binding of aflatoxin Bj in rats. Carcinogenesis 12, 459–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman I. Krinsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations