Skip to main content

The Design and Evaluation of an Augmented Reality History Textbook for Primary Education

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Smart Mobile Communication & Artificial Intelligence (IMCL 2023)


The aim of this study was the design and evaluation of an Augmented Reality (AR) textbook for the teaching of History to primary school students. The contents of the AR textbook were designed via a review of the literature, study of school textbooks and curricula regarding the subject of History, and opinions of experienced teachers. After being evaluated for usability and content by teachers and students in a pilot study, the final version of the AR textbook was evaluated by 60 teachers by examining its acceptance. Results indicated that future use of the AR textbook by teachers was dependent on them perceiving it to be useful in their teaching, possess greater advantages compared to other technologies, and feature conditions facilitating its use. The AR textbook was implemented in real learning conditions, where 65 students expressed positive perceptions regarding it, as well as their desire to use it again in the future. The factors that affected the use of the AR textbook were technical problems related to tablets and the Internet. On the contrary, students’ collaboration in groups and teachers’ positive attitudes toward digital technologies and AR in education contributed to the successful implementation of the AR textbook in the classroom.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Chang, H.-Y., et al.: Ten years of augmented reality in education: a meta-analysis of (quasi-) experimental studies to investigate the impact. Comput. Educ. 191, 104641 (2022)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Danaei, D., Jamali, H.R., Mansourian, Y., Rastegarpour, H.: Comparing reading comprehension between children reading augmented reality and print storybooks. Comput. Educ. 153, 103900 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Dünser, A., Hornecker, E: An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book. In: Hui, K.C., et al. (eds.) Technologies for e-Learning and Digital Entertainment. Edutainment 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4469, pp. 305–315. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Koutromanos, G., Mavromatidou, E.: Augmented reality books: what student teachers believe about their use in teaching. In: Tsiatsos, T., Demetriadis, S., Mikropoulos, A., Dagdilelis, V. (eds.) Research on E-Learning and ICT in Education, pp. 75–91. Springer, Cham (2021)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen, S.Y.: To explore the impact of augmented reality digital picture books in environmental education courses on environmental attitudes and environmental behaviors of children from different cultures. Front. Psychol. 13, 1063659 (2022)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Harun, F., Tuli, N., Mantri, A.: Experience Fleming’s rule in electromagnetism using augmented reality: analyzing impact on students learning. Procedia Comput. Sci. 172, 660–668 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Husbands, C., Kitson, A., Pendry, A.: Understanding History Teaching: Teaching and Learning About The Past in Secondary Schools. McGraw-Hill Education, UK (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Tamisoglou, C.: Students’ ideas about school history: a view from Greece. Procedia. Soc. Behav. Sci. 2(2), 476–480 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bakri, F., Marsal, O., Muliyati, D.: Textbooks equipped with augmented reality technology for physics topic in high-school. J. Penelit. Pengembang. Pendidik. Fisik. 5(2), 113–122 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Fatih, Y., Kumalija, E.J., Sun, Y.: Mobile learning based gamification in a history learning context. In: Sanchez, I.A., Isaias, P. (eds.) 14th International Conference Mobile Learning 2018, pp. 143–147. IADIS Press, Lisbon (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kysela, J., Štorková, P.: Using augmented reality as a medium for teaching history and tourism. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 174, 926931 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Azhar, M., Diah, M., Ahmad, S., Ismail, M.: Development of augmented reality to learn history. Bull. Electric. Eng. Informat. 8(4), 1425–1432 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Paredes-Velasteguí, D., Lluma-Noboa, A., Olmedo-Vizueta, D., Avila-Pesantez, D., Hernandez-Ambato, J.: Augmented reality implementation as reinforcement tool for public textbooks education in Ecuador. In: 2018 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). IEEE, pp. 1243–1250. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain (2018)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  14. Karamanoli, P., Tsinakos, A.: A mobile augmented reality application for primary school’s history. IOSR J. Res. Method Educ. 6(6), 56–65 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Efstathiou, I., Kyza, E.A., Georgiou, Y.: An inquiry-based augmented reality mobile learning approach to fostering primary school students’ historical reasoning in non-formal settings. Interact. Learn. Environ. 26(1), 22–41 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Schaper, M.M., Santos, M., Malinverni, L., Berro, J.Z., Pares, N.: Learning about the past through situatedness, embodied exploration and digital augmentation of cultural heritage sites. Int. J. Hum Comput Stud. 114, 36–50 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Huizenga, J., Admiraal, W., Akkerman, S., Dam, G.T.: Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 25(4), 332–344 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Koutromanos, G., Pittara, T., Tripoulas, C.: “Clavis Aurea”: An augmented reality game for the teaching of local history. In: European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research (CIE), pp. 1–8 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Galatis, P., Gavalas, D., Kasapakis, V., Pantziou, G., Zaroliagis, C.: Mobile augmented reality guides in cultural heritage. In: Proceedings of the 8th EAI International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications and Services (MobiCASE’16), pp. 11–19. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), Brussels (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Ekonomou, T., Vosinakis, S.: Mobile augmented reality games as an engaging tool for cultural heritage dissemination: a case study. Sci. Cult. 4(2), 97–107 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Gottlieb, O.: Time travel, labour history, and the null curriculum: new design knowledge for mobile augmented reality history games. Int. J. Herit. Stud. 24(3), 287–299 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Clark, R.C., Mayer, R.E.: Learning by viewing versus learning by doing: evidence-based guidelines for principled learning environments. Perform. Improv. 47(9), 5–13 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Dunleavy, M.: Design principles for augmented reality learning. TechTrends 58(1), 28–34 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Koutromanos, G., Mikropoulos, T., Mavridis, D., Christogiannis, C.: The mobile augmented reality acceptance model for teachers and future teachers. Educ. Inf. Technol. (2023)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Creswell, J.W.: Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th edn. Pearson Education Inc., Boston (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to George Koutromanos .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Koutromanos, G., Tripoulas, C., Pappa, M. (2024). The Design and Evaluation of an Augmented Reality History Textbook for Primary Education. In: Auer, M.E., Tsiatsos, T. (eds) Smart Mobile Communication & Artificial Intelligence. IMCL 2023. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 936. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-54326-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-54327-2

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics