Skip to main content

Using Audience Avatars to Increase Sense of Presence in Live-Streams

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications (CHIRA 2023)

Abstract

Social interactions and the sense of presence are important for the spectatorship experience in live-streams. In large audiences, communication gets harder and viewers participate less. This paper explores the possibility of representing an audience using animated avatars to increase the sense of presence and potentially move some traffic from the chat window to the avatars. We discuss the motivations for and the challenges in creating an audience avatar interface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 64.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Sound Alerts: Sound alerts twitch extension (2023). https://www.soundalerts.com

  2. Aseeri, S., Interrante, V.: The influence of avatar representation on interpersonal communication in virtual social environments. IEEE Trans. Visual Comput. Graphics 27(5), 2608–2617 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2021.3067783

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Stream Avatars: Stream avatars (2023). https://www.streamavatars.com/

  4. Nematzadeh, A., Ciampaglia, G.L., Ahn, Y.Y., Flammini, A.: Information overload in group communication: from conversation to cacophony in the twitch chat (2019). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.191412

  5. BetaDwarf: Minion masters stream features (2022). https://www.minionmaster.com/streamerboost/

  6. Birk, M.V., Atkins, C., Bowey, J.T., Mandryk, R.L.: Fostering intrinsic motivation through avatar identification in digital games. In: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’16, pp. 2982–2995. Association for Computing Machinery (2016). https://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858062

  7. Chen, J., Liao, J.: Antecedents of viewers’ live streaming watching: a perspective of social presence theory 13, 839629 (2022). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.839629, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9008234/

  8. CommanderRoot: Viewer geolocation (2023). https://dashboard.twitch.tv/extensions/9zqhb3hba48m0c382uno7k2t74isfi-1.2.0

  9. Diwanji, V., Reed, A., Ferchaud, A., Seibert, J., Weinbrecht, V., Sellers, N.: Don’t just watch, join. in: exploring information behavior and copresence on twitch 105, 106221 (2020). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563219304406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106221

  10. Dubosc, C., Gorisse, G., Christmann, O., Fleury, S., Poinsot, K., Richir, S.: Impact of avatar facial anthropomorphism on body ownership, attractiveness and social presence in collaborative tasks in immersive virtual environments. Comput. Graph. 101, 82–92 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Flores-Saviaga, C., Hammer, J., Flores, J.P., Seering, J., Reeves, S., Savage, S.: Audience and streamer participation at scale on twitch. In: Proceedings of the 30th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media, HT ’19, pp. 277–278. Association for Computing Machinery (2019). https://doi.org/10.1145/3342220.3344926

  12. Ford, C., et al.: Chat speed OP PogChamp: practices of coherence in massive twitch chat. In: Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ’17, pp. 858–871. Association for Computing Machinery (2017). https://doi.org/10.1145/3027063.3052765

  13. cvs-gaming.nl: Pando (2023). https://dashboard.twitch.tv/extensions/fubh5p0lrwei0v4w4ncs2rnlqw455h

  14. Wolff, G.H., Shen, C.: Audience size, moderator activity, gender, and content diversity: exploring user participation and financial commitment on twitch.tv (2022). https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448211069996

  15. Heidicker, P., Langbehn, E., Steinicke, F.: Influence of avatar appearance on presence in social VR. In: 2017 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), pp. 233–234 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2017.7893357

  16. Hilvert-Bruce, Z., Neill, J.T., Sjöblom, M., Hamari, J.: Social motivations of live-streaming viewer engagement on twitch 84, 58–67 (2018). www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563218300712, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.013

  17. Kick: Kick (2023). https://www.kick.com/

  18. Lain: OBS-stream layout tutorial (2023). https://obsproject.com/kb/stream-tutorial-1-game

  19. Lee, K.M.: Presence, explicated. Commun. Theory 14(1), 27–50 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00302.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lehtovirta, S.: Creating a VTuber avatar (2023)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Lessel, P., Altmeyer, M., Krüger, A.: Viewers’ perception of elements used in game live-streams, pp. 59–68 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1145/3275116.3275117

  22. Li, F., Wang, W., Lai, W.: The social impact from Danmu-insights from Esports online videos 18(1), 441–456 (2023). www.mdpi.com/0718-1876/18/1/23. number: 1 Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer18010023

  23. Li, Y., Guo, Y.: Virtual gifting and Danmaku: what motivates people to interact in game live streaming? 62, 101624 (2021). https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0736585321000630, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2021.101624

  24. Licoppe, C., Morel, J.: Visuality, text and talk, and the systematic organization of interaction in periscope live video streams. Discourse Stud. 20(5), 637–665 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445618760606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lu, S., Yao, D., Chen, X., Grewal, R.: Do larger audiences generate greater revenues under pay what you want? Evidence from a live streaming platform. Mark. Sci. 40, 964–984 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2021.1292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lu, Z., Heo, S., Wigdor, D.J.: StreamWiki: enabling viewers of knowledge sharing live streams to collaboratively generate archival documentation for effective in-stream and post hoc learning. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 2, 1–26 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1145/3274381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Lu, Z., Kazi, R.H., Wei, L.Y., Dontcheva, M., Karahalios, K.: StreamSketch: exploring multi-modal interactions in creative live streams. Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact. 5, 1–26 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1145/3449132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Lu, Z., Shen, C., Li, J., Shen, H., Wigdor, D.: More kawaii than a real-person live streamer: Understanding how the otaku community engages with and perceives virtual YouTubers. In: Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’21, pp. 1–14. Association for Computing Machinery (2021). https://doi.org/10.1145/3411764.3445660

  29. Lu, Z., Xia, H., Heo, S., Wigdor, D.: You watch, you give, and you engage: a study of live streaming practices in china. In: Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’18, pp. 1–13. Association for Computing Machinery (2018). https://doi.org/10.1145/3173574.3174040

  30. Mancini, T., Sibilla, F.: Offline personality and avatar customisation. Discrepancy profiles and avatar identification in a sample of MMORPG players. Comput. Hum. Behav. 69, 275–283 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.031,https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563216308524

  31. Johnson, M.R., Woodcock, J.: “And today’s top donator is”: how live streamers on twitch.tv monetize and gamify their broadcasts (2019). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119881694

  32. Meta: Instagram live producer (2023). https://about.instagram.com/blog/tips-and-tricks/instagram-live-producer

  33. Neus, F., Nimmermann, F., Wagner, K., Schramm-Klein, H.: Differences and similarities in motivation for offline and online eSports event consumption

    Google Scholar 

  34. Rice, M., et al.: Comparing avatar game representation preferences across three age groups. In: CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ’13, pp. 1161–1166. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2013). https://doi.org/10.1145/2468356.2468564

  35. Robinson, R.B., Rheeder, R., Klarkowski, M., Mandryk, R.L.: “Chat has no chill": a novel physiological interaction for engaging live streaming audiences. In: Proceedings of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’22, pp. 1–18. Association for Computing Machinery (2022). https://doi.org/10.1145/3491102.3501934

  36. Logitech Services S.A.: Chat box overlay for twitch (2023). https://streamlabs.com/desktop-widgets/chat-box

  37. Statista: Most downloaded apps worldwide 2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1285960/top-downloaded-mobile-apps-worldwide/

  38. TikTok: Tiktok live features (2023). https://www.tiktok.com/creators/creator-portal/en-us/what-to-know-about-live/live-product-features/

  39. Twitch Interactive, Inc.: Designing extensions –twitch developers (2023). https://dev.twitch.tv/docs/extensions/designing/

  40. Twitch Interactive, Inc.: Extensions –twitch developers (2023). https://dev.twitch.tv/docs/extensions/

  41. Twitch Interactive, Inc.: Twitch (2023). https://www.twitch.tv

  42. TwitchTracker: Twitchtracker (2023). https://www.twitchtracker.com/statistics

  43. Yang, S., Lee, C., Shin, H.V., Kim, J.: Snapstream: snapshot-based interaction in live streaming for visual art. In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’20, pp. 1–12. Association for Computing Machinery (2020). https://doi.org/10.1145/3313831.3376390

  44. Chen, Y., Gao, Q., Rau, P.L.P.: Watching a movie alone yet together: understanding reasons for watching Danmaku videos (2017). https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2017.1282187

  45. Meng-Lewis, Y., Lewis, G., Lin, Z., Zhao, Y.: Examination of Esports fans’ live streaming experiences using an extended expectation-confirmation model: a case study of the king pro league (2022). https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2022.2141008

  46. Zheng, S., Chen, J., Liao, J., Hu, H.L.: What motivates users’ viewing and purchasing behavior motivations in live streaming: a stream-streamer-viewer perspective 72, 103240 (2023). www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969698922003332, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2022.103240

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tomáš Pagáč .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Pagáč, T., Kriglstein, S. (2023). Using Audience Avatars to Increase Sense of Presence in Live-Streams. In: da Silva, H.P., Cipresso, P. (eds) Computer-Human Interaction Research and Applications. CHIRA 2023. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1997. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-49368-3_20

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-49368-3_20

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-49367-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-49368-3

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics