Skip to main content

Testing of Insulation Systems, Facades, and Roofs

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Testing of Materials for Fire Protection Needs


A fire can spread through several routes as it moves through a building. The most important of these is the spread of the flame over the flammable outer building surface, vertically or horizontally through the air gaps between the cladding or facade systems, or through the core of the insulation itself as stated in the international standards ISO 13785-1 [17] On the Testing of the spread of fire along the exterior wall cladding. Furthermore, the standard discusses potential scenarios for the spread of fire: from the room through a window onto a facade; the fire of combustibles located outside near the facade (e.g., waste, vegetation), or fire of the neighboring building [1–9, 11–13].

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. J. Anderson et al., European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. Fire Mater., 1–11 (2020).

  2. S. Bahrami, D. Zeinali, The sustainability challenge of product information quality in the design and construction of facades: Lessons from the Grenfell Tower fire. Smart Sustain. Built Environ. 12(3), 488–506 (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. L. Boström et al., Development of a European Approach to Assess the Fire Performance of Facades (Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018). Accessed 18 Feb 2023

    Google Scholar 

  4. L. Boström et al., Fire Test of Ventilated and Unventilated Wooden Façades, SP Report 2016:16 (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, 2016)

    Google Scholar 

  5. A.H. Buchanan, A. Abu, Structural Design for Fire Safety, 2nd edn. (Wiley, Boca Raton, 2017).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  6. P. Cancelliere et al., A new test method to determine the fire behavior of façades with etic system. Fire Mater. 45, 624–637 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. X. Chen et al., Experimental study on flame extension and pattern analysis of jet fire impinging wood plates. Fire Technol. (2022).

  8. M. Jelcic Rukavina, M. Carevic, I. Banjad Peur, Fire protection of Façades (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Zagreb, 2017), p. 64. Accessed 17 Feb 2023

  9. V. Kodur, P. Kumar, M.M. Rafi, Fire hazard in buildings: Review, assessment and strategies for improving fire safety. PSU Res. Rev. 4(1), 1–23 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Y. Li, Z. Wang, X. Huang, An exploration of equivalent scenarios for building facade fire standard tests. J. Build. Eng. 52 (2022).

  11. A. Mårtensson, New methods for testing fire resistance of wood façade systems. MATEC web of conferences 46, 02003.

  12. L. Makovicka Osvaldova, Wooden Façades and Fire Safety, Springer briefs in fire (2020).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  13. S.T. McKenna et al., Fire behaviour of modern façade materials – Understanding the Grenfell Tower fire. J. Hazard. Mater. 368, 115–123 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. A. Osvald et al., Hodnotenie materiálov a konštrukcii pre potreby protipožiarnej ochrany (Evaluation of materials and construction for the needs of fire protection) (Technical University, Zvolen, 2009)

    Google Scholar 

  15. S. Rastocky, Skúšanie požiarno-technických vlastností stavebných výrobkov (Testing the fire–technical properties of construction products), in Wood and Fire Safety, (Technická univerzita, Zvolen, 2000), pp. 112–141

    Google Scholar 

  16. EN 13501-1+A1: 2009 Fire classification of construction products and building elements Part 1: Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests

    Google Scholar 

  17. ISO 13785-1:2002 Reaction-to-fire tests for façades – Part 1: Intermediate-scale test

    Google Scholar 

  18. ISO 13785-2:2002 Reaction-to-fire tests for façades – Part 2: Large-scale test

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Makovická Osvaldová, L., Fatriasari, W. (2023). Testing of Insulation Systems, Facades, and Roofs. In: Testing of Materials for Fire Protection Needs. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers Series. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-39710-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-39711-0

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics