Skip to main content

Post-Earthquake Assessment and Possibilities for Management of Existing Masonry Buildings

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions (SAHC 2023)

Part of the book series: RILEM Bookseries ((RILEM,volume 46))

  • 607 Accesses

Abstract

2020 Zagreb earthquake sequence provided unprecedented opportunity to answer many unknowns and uncertainties in the understanding on earthquake performance of masonry buildings and to analyze many concerns affecting the post-earthquake assessment and renovation strategies in Croatia. These decisions are based on the updated knowledge obtained through the assessment. Condition assessment can be done on multiple levels, e.g. basic visual assessment of a structure, assessment with various destructive, non-destructive and semi-destructive testing methods, interpretation of a data from structural health monitoring, various levels of structural modelling and safety verification formats. Procedures mentioned are carried out to collect the data on several significant factors that affect the seismic behavior of buildings. The comprehensive data and overview on the seismic performance and management of masonry buildings after the earthquakes in Croatia can be used to test the effectiveness of existing models and to inform the development of new models for seismic risk assessment and resilience analysis. The condition assessment and renovation process of building of exceptional heritage importance will be presented and discussed. The value of information analysis presented for a case study building shows how additional information and acquired knowledge brings multiple benefits in retrofitting and management process.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 299.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Stepinac, M., et al.: Damage classification of residential buildings in historical downtown after the ML5.5 earthquake in Zagreb, Croatia in 2020. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 56, 102140 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Stepinac, M., Skokandić, D., Ožić, K., Margareta Zidar, M.V.: Condition assessment and seismic upgrading strategy of RC structures—a case study of a public institution in Croatia. Buildings 12 (2022)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Damage, R., Assessment N: Croatia earthquake (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  4. http://seizkarta.gfz.hr/

  5. Uroš, M., Šavor Novak, M., Atalić, J., Sigmund, Z., Baniček, M., Demšić, M., Hak, S.: Post-earthquake damage assessment of buildings – procedure for conducting building inspections

    Google Scholar 

  6. Stepinac, M., Rajčić, V., Barbalić, J.: Inspection and condition assessment of existing timber structures. Gradjevinar 69, 861–873 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  7. The Database of Usability Classification, Croatian Centre of Earthquake Engineering (HCPI - Hrvatski centar za potresno inženjerstvo), Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb and The City of Zagreb, June 2020

    Google Scholar 

  8. Moretić, A., Stepinac, M., Lourenço, P.B.: Seismic upgrading of cultural heritage – a case study using an educational building in Croatia from the historicism style. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Moretić, A., Chieffo, N., Stepinac, M., Lourenço, P.B.: Vulnerability assessment of historical building aggregates in Zagreb: implementation of a macroseismic approach. Bull. Earthq. Eng. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-022-01596-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hafner, I., Lazarević, D., Kišiček, T., Stepinac, M.: Post-earthquake assessment of a historical masonry building after the Zagreb earthquake-case study. Buildings (2022). https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Funari, M.F., Pulatsu, B., Simon Szabo, P.B.L.: A solution for the frictional resistance in macro-block limit analysis of non-periodic masonry. Structures 43, 847–859 (2022)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Uroš, M., Demšić, M., Baniček, M., Pilipović, A.: Seismic retrofitting of dual structural systems—a case study of an educational building in Croatia. Buildings 13, 292 (2023)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance—Part 3: Assessment and Retrofitting of Buildings (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Stepinac, M., Gašparović, M.: A review of emerging technologies for an assessment of safety and seismic vulnerability and damage detection of existing masonry structures. Appl. Sci. (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155060

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dall’Asta, A., Leoni, G., Meschini, A., Petrucci, E., Zona, A.: Integrated approach for seismic vulnerability analysis of historic massive defensive structures. J. Cult. Herit. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2018.07.004

  16. Betti, M., Bonora, V., Galano, L., Pellis, E., Tucci, G., Vignoli, A.: An integrated geometric and material survey for the conservation of heritage masonry structures. Heritage (2021). https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4020035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. ASTM C1531-16: Standard Test Methods for In Situ Measurement of Masonry Mortar Joint Shear Strength Index, ASTM International (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  18. ASTM C1196-14a: Standard Test Method for In Situ Compressive Stress Within Solid Unit Masonry Estimated Using Flatjack Measurements, ASTM International (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  19. ASTM C1197-14a: Standard Test Method for In Situ Measurement of Masonry Deformability Properties Using the Flatjack Method, ASTM International (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  20. RILEM TC 177-MDT: Test method recommendations of RILEM TC 177-MDT ‘Masonry durability and on-site testing’ - D.4: In-situ stress tests based on the flat jack. Mater. Struct. 37(271), 491–496 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  21. RILEM TC 177-MDT: Test method recommendations of RILEM TC 177-MDT ‘Masonry durability and on-site testing’ - D.5: In-situ stress - strain behaviour tests based on the flat jack. Mater. Struct. 37(271), 497–501 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Vasanelli, E., Calia, A., Luprano, V., Micelli, F.: Ultrasonic pulse velocity test for non-destructive investigations of historical masonries: an experimental study of the effect of frequency and applied load on the response of a limestone. Mater. Struct. 50(1), 1–11 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-016-0892-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gorokhovich, Y., Doocy, S., Voustianiouk, A., Small, C.: Assessment of mortar and brick strength in earthquake-affected structures in Peru using a schmidt hammer. J. Perform. Constr. Facil. 24, 634–640 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Grazzini, A.: Sonic and impact test for structural assessment of historical masonry. Appl. Sci. (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Raiffa, H., Schlaifer, R.: Applied Statistical Decision Theory. Harvard University Press, Boston (1961)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  26. Stepinac, M., Rajčić, V., Honfi, D.: Condition assessment of timber structures – quantifying the value of information. In: IABSE Symposium NANTES, 2018 Tomorrow’s Megastructures, pp. S27-9. The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Nantes, France (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Wilson, E.C.F.: A practical guide to value of information analysis. Pharmacoeconomics 33(2), 105–121 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-014-0219-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Skokandić, D., Mandić Ivanković, A.: Value of additional traffic data in the context of bridge service-life management. Struct. Infrastruct. Eng. 18, 456–475 (2022)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Skokandić, D.: Probalistic assessment of existing road bridges using B-Wim data. University of Zagreb (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Ožić, K., Skejić, D., Lukačević, I., Stepinac, M.: Value of information analysis for the post-earthquake assessment of existing masonry structures—case studies. Buildings (2023). https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13010144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Croatian bureau of Statistics, BUILDING MATERIAL PRICE INDEX AT MANUFACTURERS, 1–4 (2022)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Program mjera obnove zgrada oštećenih potresom na području Grada Zagreba, Krapinsko-Zagorske županije, Zagrebačke županije, Sisačko-Moslovačke županije i Karlovačke županije (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Rota, M., Penna, A., Magenes, G.: A framework for the seismic assessment of existing masonry buildings accounting for different sources of uncertainty. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 1045–1066 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  34. CEN/TC250/SC10. prEN1990: Eurocode-Basis of structural design (2018)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research was funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant number UIP-2019-04-3749 (ARES project—Assessment and rehabilitation of existing structures—development of contemporary methods for masonry and timber structures), project leader: Mislav Stepinac.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karlo Ožić .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Ožić, K., Stepinac, M., Lulić, L., Skokandić, D. (2024). Post-Earthquake Assessment and Possibilities for Management of Existing Masonry Buildings. In: Endo, Y., Hanazato, T. (eds) Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions. SAHC 2023. RILEM Bookseries, vol 46. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-39450-8_59

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-39450-8_59

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-39449-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-39450-8

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics