Skip to main content


In 1925, even before the Schrödinger equation was published, Wolfgang Pauli enunciated the principle that is named after him today. Pauli’s exclusion principle allows for applying the ideas developed in previous Chapters to systems formed by many identical particles. This includes the application of Pauli’s exclusion principle for describing atoms, a precise yet brief visit to a relativistic Fermi gas, and the discussion of the importance of including relativity for describing the formation of black holes in Cosmology.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 89.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. W. Greiner, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: Wave Equations (Spring, New York, 1990)

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (Prentice Hall, USA, 1995)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. I. Morison, Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology (Wiley, U. K, 2008)

    Google Scholar 

  4. R. López-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, Some consequences of a simple approach for constructing a theory of a relativistic Fermi gas. J. Modern Phys. 12, 1966 (2021)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. Pauli’s exclusion principle (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

  6. Periodic Table (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

  7. Fermi gas (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

  8. Chandrasekhar mass (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

  9. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th ed. (Wiley, 2005)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Energy band structure of the electrons in solid crystals (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

  11. A hole in the Dirac’s Sea of electrons (Wikipedia), Accessed 10 Apr 2023

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luis Grave de Peralta .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Grave de Peralta, L., Fernández Lozada, M., Farooq, H., Eichman, G., Singh, A., Prime, G. (2023). Identical Particles. In: Relativistic and Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics