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Abstract

Evaluation is practised in India for seventy years in various sectors of public sphere, and in recent years by the civil society and industries also. Even though there is no Constitutional mandate or national policies or statutes, evaluations are commissioned both by the Central (federal) government and States as and when needed, and in recent years, are generally carried out by independent research institutions. While there are a few courses in evaluation as a part of higher academic courses, no independent and full-time programs are on offer. Most of the evaluation capacity building takes place either through international programmes or short part-time courses in India. Evaluation Community of India (ECOI) set up in 2015 as a body of professional evaluators, along with its constituent EvalYouth India, has been championing the cause of evaluation capacity building through innovative approaches and the adoption of an evaluation policy. Civil society’s appreciation of evaluation has been growing, and so is the media’s reporting of evaluative evidence and of national evaluation policy.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See a recent article by Diwakar and Rao (2023) that traces the history of monitoring and evaluation in India and the world. Also, see Pal (2011).

  2. 2.

    See rural.nic.in/sites/default/files/guidelines_evaluation_impact_assessment_research_studies_economic_monitoring_wing.pdf. Accessed on 29 September 2022.

  3. 3.

    Read the complete report at https://cag.gov.in/en/audit-report/details/112173. Accessed on 13 March 2023.

  4. 4.

    Read the complete report at https://cag.gov.in/en/audit-report/details/55961. Accessed on 13 March 2023.

  5. 5.

    Read the complete report at https://cag.gov.in/uploads/download_audit_report/2019/Report_No_8_of_2019_Preparedness_for_the_Implementation_of_Sustainable_Development_Goals_Union_Government_Civil_NITI_Aayog.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  6. 6.

    Read the complete report at https://cag.gov.in/en/old-audit-reports/view/13766. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  7. 7.

    1. Status of National Evaluation Policies: Global Mapping Report by Barbara Rosenstein, 2015 for Parliamentarians Forum for Development Evaluation in South Asia and EvalPartners; last update 2021 by Barbara Rosenstein and Asela Kalugampitiya (Rosenstein 2015; Rosenstein & Kalugampitiya, 2021).

    2. A Study on the Status of National Evaluation Policies and Systems in Asia Pacific Region 2021, APEA; last update 2022 (Diwakar et al., 2021, 2022).

  8. 8.

    Karnataka is the only State in India to have an explicit evaluation policy.

  9. 9.

    1 crore is 10 million.

  10. 10.

    1 lakh is 100,000.

  11. 11.

    Official website of Karnataka Evaluation Authority can be accessed at https://kmea.karnataka.gov.in/info-1/About+Us/en. Accessed on 11 July 2022.

  12. 12.

    Vision, Mission and Strategy | DMEO | Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office | Attached office under NITI Aayog. See https://dmeo.gov.in/. Accessed on 14 March 2023.

  13. 13.

    The diagram is taken from the Development Monitoring & Evaluation Office (DMEO) | NITI Aayog, Functions of DMEO, at https://www.niti.gov.in/development-monitoring-evaluation-office-dmeo. Accessed on 29 September 2021.

  14. 14.

    https://rural.nic.in/sites/default/files/Guidelines_Evaluation_Impact_Assessment_Research_Studies_Economic_Monitoring_Wing.pdf. Accessed on 13 March 2023.

  15. 15.

    Ministry of Rural Development (2016). Guidelines for Scheme of National Level Monitors. Government of India. Ministry of Rural Development. Department of Rural Development. Monitoring Division. New Delhi. https://rural.nic.in/sites/default/files/NLM_Guidelines.pdf. Accessed on 17 March 2023.

  16. 16.

    Government of India NITI Aayog, List of Evaluation Studies Conducted by Programme Evaluation Organisation https://niti.gov.in/planningcommission.gov.in/docs/reports/peoreport/cmpdmpeo/index.php?repts=peo_yrwis.htm. Accessed on 31 May 2021.

  17. 17.

    The website of Karnataka Evaluation Authority can be accessed at https://kmea.Karnataka.gov.in. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  18. 18.

    The website of the Rajasthan Directorate of Evaluation Organisation can be accessed at https://plan.rajasthan.gov.in/evaluation. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  19. 19.

    The website of the Department of Evaluation and Applied Research of Tamilnadu can be accessed at https://direar.tn.gov.in/. Accessed on 14 March 2023.

  20. 20.

    Government of India, NITI Aayog, List of Evaluation Studies Conducted by the Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO). See https://niti.gov.in/planningcommission.gov.in/docs/reports/peoreport/cmpdmpeo/index.php?repts=peo_yrwis.htm. Accessed on 31 May 2021.

  21. 21.

    The reports can be accessed here at https://plan.rajasthan.gov.in/evaluation. Accessed on 8 June 2020.

  22. 22.

    The report can be accessed here at https://kmea.karnataka.gov.in. Accessed on 8 June 2020.

  23. 23.

    Planning Commission (2004). Annual Report 2003/04. Planning Commission. Government of India. New Delhi, pp. 141f.

    Also please see the webpage on the Mahila Samriddhi Yojana at https://agriinfo.in/mahila-samridhi-yojana-m-s-y-1466/. Accessed on 16 March 2023.

  24. 24.

    Ministry of Human Resource Development (2001). Evaluation Study on the Impact of Nonformal Education. Government of India.

    Also see Planning Commission (2004). Annual Report 2003/04. Planning Commission. Government of India. New Delhi, pp. 141f.

  25. 25.

    PEO (2002). Evaluation Study on National Project on Biogas Development. Programme Evaluation Organisation. Planning Commission. Government of India. New Delhi. Online at: https://dmeo.gov.in/sites/default/files/2019-10/Evaluation%20study%20on%20National%20Project%20on%20Biogas%20Developmen.pdf. Accessed on 16 March 2023.

  26. 26.

    See the National Health Policy 2002 at https://nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/guidelines/nrhm-guidelines/national_nealth_policy_2002.pdf. Accessed on 17 March 2023.

  27. 27.

    For implications of corporate social responsibility on civil society in India, see https://ngosindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/CSRIndia.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  28. 28.

    The NGO DARPAN Portal that is maintained under the aegis of NITI Aayog, invites all Voluntary Organisations (VOs)/Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) to sign up on the Portal. The NGO DARPAN is a platform that provides space for interface between NGOs and key Government Ministries, Departments, and other Government Bodies. This portal enables VOs/NGOs to enrol centrally and thus facilitates creation of a repository of information about VOs/NGOs, Sector/State wise. The Portal facilitates VOs/NGOs to obtain a system generated Unique ID. The Unique ID is mandatory to apply for grants under various schemes of Ministries/Departments/Governments Bodies.

  29. 29.

    Based on an unpublished Survey Report in 2021. The survey was conducted by Satyam Vyas, Neeta Goel and Rajib Nandi with an assistance of the research team at Arthan—A social enterprise based in New Delhi.

  30. 30.

    Based on interviews conducted in 2021 with 20 senior MEL officers of 20 different NGOs and evaluation consulting firms in India. The survey was conducted by Satyam Vyas, Neeta Goel and Rajib Nandi with an assistance of the research team at Arthan—A social enterprise based in New Delhi. Also see the paper by Jacob and Mukhopadhyay (2023).

  31. 31.

    Annual Report 2019–20, https://www.pratham.org/ar/ar1920.pdf. Accessed on 30 September 2021.

  32. 32.

    Please read the Evaluation Summaries by J-PAL of Pratham’s Education Programs 2001–2016 at https://prathamusa.org/website-admin/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/JPAL.pdf. Accessed on 05 October 2021.

  33. 33.

    Please visit the website of IDR at https://idronline.org/. Accessed on 05 October 2021.

  34. 34.

    The Programme Evaluation Studies can be accessed at https://dmeo.gov.in/evaluation/dmeo-evaluation-studies. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  35. 35.

    All evaluation reports can be accessed here at https://kmea.karnataka.gov.in/info-4/Reports/kn. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  36. 36.

    See https://ngodarpan.gov.in/assets/ngo_doc/booklet.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  37. 37.

    See http://www.vasudha-foundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Final-Bhutan-Report_30th-Mar-2016.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  38. 38.

    See Lady Irwin College. Development Communication and Extension (DCE) Master degree programme. https://ladyirwin.edu.in/courses-development-communication-extension-dce/#1619428657959-6ba1fbda-43fb8e28-bd70nsion. Accessed on 2 October 2021.

  39. 39.

    https://phfi.org/the-work/academic-programs/. Accessed on 11 July 2022.

  40. 40.

    https://manipal.edu/doph/program-list/mph-master-of-public-health.html. Accessed on 02 October 2021.

  41. 41.

    https://mph.iihmr.edu.in/academic/course-offerings. Accessed on 02 October 2021.

  42. 42.

    https://admissions.tiss.edu/view/10/admissions/ma-admissions/master-of-health-administration-mha/. Accessed on 02 October 2021.

  43. 43.

    https://www.pria.org. Accessed on 17 March 2023.

  44. 44.

    See the detailed course brochure at https://www.isstindia.org/pdf/projects/1633088134_pdf_FGTE2_Course_Brochure_ISST_1.pdf. Accessed on 05 October 2021.

  45. 45.

    See the course brochure at https://sambodhi.co.in/capacity-building/course-detail. Accessed on 17 March 2023.

  46. 46.

    https://www.sambodhi.co.in/south-asian-journal. Accessed on 2 October 2021.

  47. 47.

    http://www.ecoionline.com/newsletter/. Accessed on 2 October 2021.

  48. 48.

    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/amaravati/sustainable-development-goals-andhra-pradesh-ranked-among-top-3-states-in-country/articleshow/83222950.cms. Accessed on 11 July 2022.

  49. 49.

    There is, however, a national policy on dissemination of statistical data, vide http://www.mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/main_menu/data_discremination/national_policy_data_dissemination_6jan1999.pdf. Accessed on 14 March 2023.

  50. 50.

    https://rural.nic.in/sites/default/files/MissionAntyodayaStudyReportByNIRDPR.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  51. 51.

    http://www.ecoionline.com. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

  52. 52.

    https://rural.nic.in/sites/default/files/impact_of_pmay-g_on_icome_and_empolyment_report.pdf. Accessed on 02 October 2021.

  53. 53.

    http://www.ecoionline.com/newsletter/. Accessed on 12 July 2022.

  54. 54.

    Access the document at https://drive.google.com/file/d/1NECvuNAJW9gT9hWRGZHxQWzZo3XF0nW_/view. Accessed on 20 February 2023.

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Agrawal, R., Rao, B., Nandi, R. (2023). Evaluation in India. In: Stockmann, R., Meyer, W., Zierke, N. (eds) The Institutionalisation of Evaluation in Asia-Pacific. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-36918-6_5

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