Skip to main content

Water Resource Potential: Status and Overview

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Water Policy in Pakistan

Part of the book series: Global Issues in Water Policy ((GLOB,volume 30))

  • 179 Accesses

Abstract

Water security imposes serious challenges for the social and economic development of Pakistan, which is the eight-most climate-vulnerable country in the world. This extreme climatic variability (drought/floods) has highlighted the need to manage Pakistan’s water resources more sustainably. In 2018, the Government of Pakistan developed a National Water Policy (NWP) to provide an overall policy framework and guidelines for a comprehensive plan of action leading to the development of sustainable water management solutions. This chapter will briefly review past water policies and take stock of available water resources and their sectoral uses, water use options under climate change, and water governance. It will also include data on available water (surface and groundwater) and sectoral uses by basin. In addition, it will comprehensively review Pakistan’s current water resources, the challenges faced by irrigated agriculture, and possible future strategies to overcome these problems and ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the Indus Basin. It will introduce topics that will be discussed in succeeding chapters in more detail.

This work was carried out under the CGIAR Initiative on NEXUS Gains, which is grateful for the support of CGIAR Trust Fund contributors: www.cgiar.org/funders

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahmad, S. (2007). Land and water resources of Pakistan—A critical assessment. The Pakistan Development Review, 46(4), 911–937.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, B. (2011). Water management: A solution to water scarcity in Pakistan. Journal of Independent Studies and Research, 9(2), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.31384/jisrmsse/2011.09.2.9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, S. (2016). Managing water demands for a rapidly growing City in semi-arid environment: Study of Las Vegas, Nevada. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments, 5(1), 35–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad, M. D., Turral, H., Masih, I., Giordano, M., & Masood, Z. (2007). Water saving technologies: Myths and realities revealed in Pakistan’s rice wheat systems. International Water Management Institute (IWMI).

    Google Scholar 

  • Awan, U. K., Anwar, A., Ahmad, W., & Hafeez, M. (2016). A methodology to estimate equity of canal water and groundwater use at different spatial and temporal scales: A geo-informatics approach. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(5), 409.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Azad, A., Rasheed, A., & Memon, Y. (2003). Sindh water resources management–issues and options. FAO investment Centre occasional paper series (15). FAO.

    Google Scholar 

  • Basharat, M. (2015). Groundwater Management in Indus Plain and Integrated Water Resources Management Approach. Pakistan water and power development authority (WAPDA).

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhatti, A. M., & Nasu, S. (2010). Domestic water demand forecasting and management under changing socio-economic scenario. Society for Social Management Systems, 6(1). https://ssms.jp/img/files/2019/04/sms10_183.pdf

  • Bhutta, M. N. (1999). Vision on water for food and agriculture: Pakistan perspective. Paper presented at the regional South Asia meeting on water for food and rural development, New Delhi, India, 1–3 June, 1999. New Delhi, India.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bhutta, M. N., & Smedema, L. K. (2007). One hundred years of waterlogging and salinity control in the Indus valley, Pakistan: A historical review. Irrigation and Drainage, 56(S1), S81–S90. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bisht, M. (2013). Water sector in Pakistan: Policy, politics, management. Institute for Defense Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blomquist, W., & Ingram, H. M. (2003). Boundaries seen and unseen – Resolving transboundary groundwater problems. Water International, 28(2), 162–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Briscoe, J., & Qamar, U. (2005). Pakistan’s water economy: Running dry. The World Bank, Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Briscoe, J., Qamar, U., Contijoch, M., Amir, P., & Blackmore, D. (2005). Pakistan’s water economy: Running dry. The World Bank.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, J. G., & Pradesh, H. (2005). Inventory of glaciers, Glacial Lakes and the identification of potential Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) affected by global warming in the mountains of India, Pakistan and China/Tibet autonomous region. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. https://www.apn-gcr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/d71dea72bc764245642e7d047c095463.pdf

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, R. B., Karlen, D. L., & Sojka, R. E. (1984). Conservation tillage for maize production in the U.S. southeastern coastal plain. Soil and Tillage Research, 4(6), 511–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(84)90002-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choudhary, M. R., & Bhutta, M. N. (2000, August 16–18). Problems impeding the sustainability of drainage systems in Pakistan. Proceedings and recommendations of the national seminar on drainage in Pakistan (pp. 1–14). Institute of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, R. (2018). Water management/governance systems in Pakistan. KRD helpdesk report. Institute of Development Studies. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/20.500.12413/14246/503_Water_Governance_Systems_Pakistan.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    Google Scholar 

  • Engelman, R., & Leroy, L. (1993). Sustaining water: Population and future for renewable water supplies. Population Action International.

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO. (2019). AQUASTAT Database.

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO AQUASTAT database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Retrieved 30 September 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faruqui, N. I. (2004). Responding to the water crisis in Pakistan. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 20(2), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/0790062042000206138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haider, G., Prathapar, S. A., Afzal, M., & Qureshi, A. S. (1999). Water for environment in Pakistan. Paper presented in the global water partnership workshop, 11 April 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain, T., Timmer, V., Akram, H., Yaqub, A., Aslam, M., Gilani, G., & Abbas, M. A. (1990). Brackish water management strategies for crop production. Proceedings of the indo-Pak workshop on soil salinity and water management. Vol. 2. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.

    Google Scholar 

  • IUCN. (2014). Water Policy & Institutions in Pakistan. Policy Briefings. https://waterinfo.net.pk/sites/default/files/knowledge/PWP%20Policy%20Brief%20II%20-%20Water%20Policy%20and%20Institutions%20in%20Pakistan.pdf

  • IUCN [World Conservation Union–IUCN]. (2011). Inter-provincial water allocation issues: Beyond water treaty. Draft report. IUCN.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kamal, S. (2009). Use of water for agriculture in Pakistan: Experiences and challenges. Office of Research and Economic Development-Publications. University of Nebraska. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=researchecondev

  • Li, Y. (2001). Groundwater recharge. Unpublished paper. Nanjing Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lyman, R. A. (1992). Peak and off-peak residential water demand. Water Resources Research, 28(9), 2159–2167. https://doi.org/10.1029/92WR01082

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Water and Power. (2002). Pakistan water sector strategy, national water sector profile. Office of the Chief Engineering Advisor/Chairman Federal Flood Commission, Ministry of Water and Power, Government of Pakistan. http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol5.pdf

    Google Scholar 

  • Nawaz, R. A., Awan, U. K., Anjum, L., & Liaqat, U. W. (2021). A novel approach to analyze uncertainties and complexities while mapping groundwater abstractions in large irrigation schemes. Journal of Hydrology, 596, 126131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parry, J. E., Osman, H., & Terton, A. (2017). The vulnerability of Pakistan’s water sector to the impacts of climate change: Identification of gaps and recommendations for action. International Institute for Sustainable Development/UNDP Pakistan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renzetti, S. (2002). The economics of water demands. Springer US.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Saleh, M. (2016). Irrigation problems in Pakistan. Unpublished paper.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, P. (2017, July 24). 5 Most water intensive crops. Claro Energy Private Limited. https://claroenergy.in/5-most-water-intensive-crops/. Accessed 23 Dec 2022.

  • Tariq, M., van de Giesen, N., Janjua, S., Shahid, M., & Farooq, R. (2020). An engineering perspective of water sharing issues in Pakistan. Water, 12(2), 477. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zuberi, F. A. (1997). Integrated surface and groundwater management Programme for Pakistan groundwater resources. Interim report. International waterlogging and salinity research (IWASRI).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohsin Hafeez .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Hafeez, M., Awan, U.K. (2023). Water Resource Potential: Status and Overview. In: Ahmad, M. (eds) Water Policy in Pakistan. Global Issues in Water Policy, vol 30. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-36131-9_3

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics