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OSA in Children

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea
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Abstract

In the United States, 1%–4% of children have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), while up to 40% have been reported to snore. OSA is more common in children with obesity, Black race, lower socioeconomic status, male sex, and craniofacial anomalies. Presenting symptoms may include poor school performance, issues with focus and concentration, behavioral issues, apneas, gasping, and daytime sleepiness. Definitive diagnosis remains the polysomnogram, and the primary treatment is typically adenotonsillectomy. When surgery is not a good option, medical therapy may include positive airway pressure, oral appliances, weight loss, medical treatment (like montelukast or nasal steroids), and positional therapy. Surgery may be considered for persistent OSA. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy or cine MRI is typically used to assess for sites of obstruction. Surgery based on site of obstruction typically focuses on the nose, palate, pharynx/tongue base, larynx, or craniofacial surgery.

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Ishman, S. (2023). OSA in Children. In: Baptista, P.M., Lugo Saldaña, R., Amado, S. (eds) Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-35225-6_7

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