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Hybrid Capsule Network for Hyperspectral Image Unmixing and Classification

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS,volume 700)


Hyperspectral unmixing identifies and quantifies the materials in each mixed pixel of a hyperspectral image arising from low spatial resolution. However, most of the methods for unmixing use spectral information and disregard rich spatial information. At the same time, a few methods that use spatial information find difficulty representing the spatial-spectral features because of the high dimensionality of the hyperspectral image. So, deeper architectures are used, but such deep architectures find converging difficult. This article proposes a new method for hyperspectral unmixing that utilizes a capsule network and a 3D convolutional neural network. Using a capsule network allows for encoding rich features such as spatial information, spectral signature, and possible affine transformations of spectra using vectors rather than scalars. Hence, assuming the linear mixing model and enforcing appropriate constrain on the considered method, blind hyperspectral unmixing has been done. The performance of a proposed method was evaluated using Spectral Angle Distance (SAD) and Mean Square Error (MSE) on three datasets: Jasper Ridge, Samson, and Urban. The mean SAD and MSE values for each dataset were as follows: Jasper Ridge - 0.04259 and 0.01289; Samson - 0.02599 and 0.00370; Urban - 0.04954 and 0.02084. The results show that the proposed hybrid capsule network, which uses the spatial-spectral feature, performed well, with low SAD and MSE values, indicating that it has well-estimated reflectance and fractional abundance.


  • Hybrid capsule network
  • hyperspectral image unmixing
  • spectral-spatial feature
  • 3D CNN
  • abundance map

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Correspondence to Dibakar Raj Pant .

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Giri, R., Pant, D.R., Heikkonen, J., Kanth, R. (2023). Hybrid Capsule Network for Hyperspectral Image Unmixing and Classification. In: Daimi, K., Al Sadoon, A. (eds) Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Advances in Computing Research (ACR’23). ACR 2023. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 700. Springer, Cham.

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