Skip to main content

Physical Education Exercises Validation Through Child-Humanoid Robot Interaction

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Advances in Service and Industrial Robotics (RAAD 2023)

Part of the book series: Mechanisms and Machine Science ((Mechan. Machine Science,volume 135))

Included in the following conference series:

  • 627 Accesses


This paper presents the concept of integrating a robot into the children's environment as an instructor for physical education exercises. The research includes four phases: recording human physical education movements, mapping the recorded movements to the movements of the Pepper robot representing the instructor, analyzing the children's movements while it repeats the movements of the robot, and making a decision about the quality of the children's movements. The goal of this research is to motivate children to perform physical education exercises as well as to make it easier for them to accept the robot in their environment through play. The concept was tested on 10 adults and 2 children. The results show that the children were very stimulated to do the movements with the robot. They performed the exercises well, with a small lack of concentration that can be improved through interaction with the robot.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Sgrò, F., Quinto, A., Messana, L., Pignato, S., Lipoma, M.: Assessment of gross motor developmental level in Italian primary school children. J. Phys. Edu. Sport 17(3), 1954–1959 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. D’Elia, F., Tortella, P., Sannicandro, I., D’Isanto, T.: Design and teaching of physical education for children and youth. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 15(4proc), S1527-S1533 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ismail, L.I., Verhoeven, T., Dambre, J., Wyffels, F.: Leveraging robotics research for children with autism: a review. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 11, 389–410 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Guneysu, A., Arnrich, B.: Socially assistive child-robot interaction in physical exercise coaching. In: 2017 26th IEEE international symposium on robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN), pp. 670–675. IEEE (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Guneysu, A., Arnrich, B., Ersoy, C.: Children's rehabilitation with humanoid robots and wearable inertial measurement units. In: 2015 9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (PervasiveHealth), pp. 249–252. IEEE (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Sutapa, P., Suharjana, S.: Improving gross motor skills by gross kinesthetic-and contemporary-based physical activity in early childhood. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan 38(3), 540–551 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ioannou, A., Andreou, E., Christofi, M.: Pre-schoolers’ interest and caring behaviour around a humanoid robot. TechTrends 59(2), 23–26 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Meghdari, A., Alemi, M., Zakipour, M., Kashanian, S.A.: Design and realization of a sign language educational humanoid robot. J. Intell. Rob. Syst. 95(1), 3–17 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kennedy, J., et al.: Child speech recognition in human-robot interaction: evaluations and recommendations. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 82–90 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Borovac, B., et al.: Robotics as Assistive Technology for Treatment of Children with Developmental Disorders—Example of Robot MARKO. In: International Conference on Machine and Industrial Design in Mechanical Engineering, pp. 69–76. Springer, Cham (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Barakova, E.I., Bajracharya, P., Willemsen, M., Lourens, T., Huskens, B.: Long-term LEGO therapy with humanoid robot for children with ASD. Expert. Syst. 32(6), 698–709 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Vicon Motion Systems, Inc., Oxford, UK. Nexus 2.11 Documentation: Kinetic Modeling, (2021)

  13. Soft Bank Robotics: Pepper. Technical Datasheet 1.8 Version 2 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Tomić, M., Chevallereau, Ch., Jovanović, K., Potkonjak, V., Rodić, A.: Human to humanoid motion conversion for dual arm manipulation tasks. Robotica, 1–21 (2018)., ISSN: 0263-5747

  15. Khalil, W., Creusot, D.: SYMORO+: A system for the symbolic modelling of robots. Robotica 15, 153–161 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Safonova, A., Pollard, N., Hodgins, J.K.: Optimizing human motion for the control of a humanoid robot. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1390–1397 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bazarevsky, V., Grishchenko, I., Raveendran, K., Zhu, T., Zhang, F., Grundmann, M.: Blazepose: On-device real-time body pose tracking. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.10204 (2020)

  18. Sakoe, H., Seibi, C.: Dynamic programming algorithm optimization for spoken word recognition. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 1978. Vol. ASSP-26, No. 1, pp. 43–49 (1987)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the project CRTA - Regional Centre of Excellence for Robotic Technologies, funded by the ERDF fund. Also, the authors would like to thank all participants in the experiments.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tara Knežević .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Knežević, T., Radmilović, M., Borojević, J., Šumarac, J., Švaco, M., Raković, M. (2023). Physical Education Exercises Validation Through Child-Humanoid Robot Interaction. In: Petrič, T., Ude, A., Žlajpah, L. (eds) Advances in Service and Industrial Robotics. RAAD 2023. Mechanisms and Machine Science, vol 135. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics