Skip to main content

Impact of Robot Related User Pre-experience on Cognitive Load, Trust, Trustworthiness and Satisfaction with VR Interfaces

Part of the Mechanisms and Machine Science book series (Mechan. Machine Science,volume 135)


This paper investigates how user pre-experience impacts the quality of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) when using a virtual reality (VR) interface to control a robot. The benefit lies in the fact that creating interfaces for these complex systems is a challenging process, and our aim is to shed light on one of the contributing factors. We aim to complement existing works by conducting a user study exploring the link between multiple psychological factors and users’ pre-experience with robot systems, video games and gamepads while interacting with a real robot through a VR interface. Results showed that experienced users reported less cognitive load, but also less trustworthiness of and satisfaction with the system and that these factors are correlated with system usability and satisfaction. We assume that this is based in pre-experienced users, having higher expectations and a more critical perception of new systems. These findings could guide the development of future interfaces tailored to specific user groups.


  • Human-Robot Interaction
  • Virtual Reality
  • Trust
  • Trustworthiness
  • Cognitive Load
  • Satisfaction

Supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) - KIRAS Program - Project EASIER (FO999886357).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  1. Ahmad, M.I., Bernotat, J., Lohan, K., Eyssel, F.: Trust and cognitive load during human-robot interaction (2019). arXiv:1909.05160 [cs]

  2. Aubert, B.A.: The impact of interface quality on trust in web retailers. Cahier du GReSI no 1(05) (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brooke, J., et al.: SUS-A quick and dirty usability scale. Usabil. Eval. Ind. 189(194), 4–7 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Chang, E., Kim, H.T., Yoo, B.: Virtual reality sickness: a review of causes and measurements. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 36(17), 1658–1682 (2020)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Dianatfar, M., Latokartano, J., Lanz, M.: Review on existing VR/AR solutions in human-robot collaboration. Proc. CIRP 97, 407–411 (2021)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Fox, D., Burgard, W., Thrun, S.: The dynamic window approach to collision avoidance. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 4(1), 23–33 (1997).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Frering, L., et al.: Enabling and assessing trust when cooperating with robots in disaster response (EASIER) (2022).

  8. Gasteiger, N., Hellou, M., Ahn, H.S.: Factors for personalization and localization to optimize human–robot interaction: a literature review. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 1–13 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hart, S.G., Staveland, L.E.: Development of NASA-TLX (task load index): results of empirical and theoretical research. In: Advances in Psychology, vol. 52, pp. 139–183. Elsevier (1988).

  10. Khavas, Z.R.: A review on trust in human-robot interaction. arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.10045 (2021)

  11. Khundam, C.: A study on usability and motion sickness of locomotion techniques for virtual reality. ECTI Trans. Comput. Inf. Technol. (ECTI-CIT) 15(3), 347–361 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Kim, Y.D., Kang, J.H., Sun, D.H., Moon, J.I., Ryuh, Y.S., An, J.: Design and implementation of user friendly remote controllers for rescue robots in fire sites. In: Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 2010, pp. 875–880. IEEE (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Körber, M.: Theoretical considerations and development of a questionnaire to measure trust in automation. In: Bagnara, S., Tartaglia, R., Albolino, S., Alexander, T., Fujita, Y. (eds.) IEA 2018. AISC, vol. 823, pp. 13–30. Springer, Cham (2019).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Lewis, J.R.: Psychometric evaluation of the PSSUQ using data from five years of usability studies. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 14(3–4), 463–488 (2002)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Longo, L.: Experienced mental workload, perception of usability, their interaction and impact on task performance. PLoS One 13(8), e0199661 (2018).

  16. Michalos, A.C.: Satisfaction and happiness. Soc. Indic. Res. 8, 385–422 (1980)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Nenna, F., Gamberini, L.: The influence of gaming experience, gender and other individual factors on robot teleoperations in VR. In: 2022 17th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), pp. 945–949. IEEE, Sapporo (2022).

  18. Pütz, S., Simón, J.S., Hertzberg, J.: Move base flex: a highly flexible navigation framework for mobile robots. In: 2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Wang, Z., Reed, I., Fey, A.M.: Toward intuitive teleoperation in surgery: human-centric evaluation of teleoperation algorithms for robotic needle steering. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 5799–5806. IEEE, Brisbane (2018).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laurent Frering .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Frering, L. et al. (2023). Impact of Robot Related User Pre-experience on Cognitive Load, Trust, Trustworthiness and Satisfaction with VR Interfaces. In: Petrič, T., Ude, A., Žlajpah, L. (eds) Advances in Service and Industrial Robotics. RAAD 2023. Mechanisms and Machine Science, vol 135. Springer, Cham.

Download citation