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CCIs and Local Development: The Role of Creativity Generation

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Part of the Contributions to Regional Science book series (CRR)


This chapter investigates the role CCIs play on local development, building on two original perspectives. First, the relationship between CCIs and growth needs to account for both the diversified forms (technological, symbolic, artistic) and levels of intensity (Inventive vs. Replicative activities) of CCIs’ creativity. Second, the capacity of CCIs’ to enhance local economic growth is expected to depend on the presence of territorial mediating factors. The results confirm that CCIs do play a positive role in triggering regional growth, especially thanks to the presence of specific territorial elements. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that CCIs are also capable to trigger the economic resilience of places in periods of crisis, opening to further investigations in this respect.

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  1. 1.

    The fixed effect setting is suggested by the Hausman test that preferred it instead of a random effect model.

  2. 2.

    This sum is obtained as \(IM{P}_{r}+EM{P}_{r}=GV{A}_{r}+{\sum }_{s\ne r}{w}_{r,s}*GV{A}_{s}\) in which \({w}_{r,s}\) represents a generic element of the inverse distances matrix.

  3. 3.

    Manufacturing and service employment shares are collinear. Therefore, only the former is included in the specifications;

  4. 4.

    Many scholars also discussed the role of social capital and trust as a lever for socio-economic development. Thanks to social ties, easier information exchanges, and discouraged cheating thanks to peer pressure, collective actions are favoured (Boschma 2005; Burt 2000; Callois and Aubert 2007; Iyer et al. 2005; Knack and Keefer 1997; Putnam 2000). In this work, a measure of trust (at NUTS2 level due to data limitations) has been included in preliminary analyses but it has been found to be never significant for all specifications. Thus, it has not been included in the final version of the book.

  5. 5.

    Cf. Greene (2011) and Wooldridge (2010) for a more detailed technical explanation of the differences between cross-sectional and panel data models.

  6. 6.

    This may even result in Simpson’s paradox: the direction of an association at the population level may be reversed within the subgroups comprising that population. For an interesting list of Simpson’s paradox examples, cf. Kievit et al. (2013).

  7. 7.

    Just as an example, the economic growth of the Milan area is not only due to the size of the internal market (that remains extremely important) but rather due to its centrality in order to reach many other valuable markets (e.g. all the other rich regions of Northern Italy or the South of Germany).

  8. 8.

    The empirical analysis has been replicated also using the accessibility to absolute GDP PPS and the results are aligned to the ones presented here.

  9. 9.

    Since this is not a major analysis but only food for thought, the output of the regression is available upon request.

  10. 10.

    High growth regions are those regions growing more than the median, for each period.

  11. 11.

    Given a general equation of a parabola \(y=a{x}^{2}+bx+c\), the sign of \(a\) determines the concavity of the curve (\(a>0\): the concavity goes towards the positive values of \(y\) and the vertex is the minimum). The sign of \(b\), instead, determines the position of the symmetry axis compared to the \(y\) axis.

  12. 12.

    Error bars show a level of confidence of 12.5%, due to the limited general significance of the AMEs.


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Correspondence to Roberto Dellisanti .

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Dellisanti, R. (2023). CCIs and Local Development: The Role of Creativity Generation. In: Cultural and Creative Industries and Regional Development. Contributions to Regional Science. Springer, Cham.

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