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Transnational Commercial Litigation. Discussing the 2020 Model Rules and the 2019 Hague and 2018 Singapore Conventions

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The Transformation of Private Law – Principles of Contract and Tort as European and International Law

Part of the book series: LCF Studies in Commercial and Financial Law ((LCFSCFL,volume 2))

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Businesses involved in cross-border litigation face two hurdles. The first concerns venue selection. Divergences between procedural systems, concerning the powers and duties of the court and the parties, the latitude of res judicata, etc. are substantial even amongst neighboring countries. The ELI-Unidroit committee of experts discarded the option of drafting a “restatement” of common European civil procedure principles and put great efforts in devising a set of “best practices”, i.e. model rules, addressed to national lawmakers. The second hurdle is faced by the winning party seeking to enforce judgment outside the state of the forum. As regional organizations are losing momentum (Brexit), the 2019 Hague Convention of the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgment and the 2018 Singapore Convention on settlement agreements might be an appealing way of keeping the grounds of refusal of recognition at a minimum shared number. The Hague Convention has been already signed by Uruguay and Ukraine, and, lately, by the EU. Is a future signature by the UK likely? Part I of this Article focuses on how classical tenets of civil procedure law are addressed by the Model Rules. Part II of this Article assesses strengths and weaknesses of the new Conventions and makes tentative forecast.

Prof. Claudio Consolo is the Author of Sects. 1.2 and 1.3.

Prof. Marcello Stella is the Author of Sects. 1, 1.1, 1.4, 2, 3.

Claudio Consolo is Professor of Civil Procedure and Professor of Arbitration and International Arbitration Law at the University of Rome “Sapienza” in Rome, Italy.

Marcello Stella is Associate Professor of Civil Procedure at the University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy.

Prof. Avv. Claudio Consolo in Milan and Verona, Italy.

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  1. 1.

    See the Report from the Commission to the European Parliament on the application of Regulation (EC) 1896/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council creating a European Order for Payment Procedure, 13.10.2015, COM(2015) 495 final.

  2. 2.

    In a vast literature, see Prechal and Kees (2014).

  3. 3.

    Hazard and Taruffo (1997).

  4. 4.

    Hazard et al. (2001); Stürner (2000).

  5. 5.

    For an evaluation of the Model Rules concerning evidence see Inchausti and Stürner (2019).

  6. 6.

    In modern times, the refusal by continental procedural lawmakers to allow a greater discretion of the courts in directing the proceedings is explained by Verde (2017), with the distrust by citizens and their counsels towards the judicial body. The lack of discretionary powers forces the procedural lawmakers to devise new rites and fast tracks. But that is no effective answer to the crisis of the civil justice (in Italy), because of the immense amount of arrear caseload.

  7. 7.

    Andrews (2008a, b).

  8. 8.

    See especially Zuckerman (1995). For an overview of the opinion expressed by English scholars on the Woolf Reform and its emphasis on case management, see De Cristofaro (2010). See also Trocker (2012).

  9. 9.

    See De la Oliva Santos and Dìez-Picazo Giménez (1999).

  10. 10.

    Art. 80, third indent, of the previous French Code of Civil Procedure, as amended by Decree 13 October 1965, expressly provided that the court had the power to authorize the amendment of the initial claims. The formula was not copied in the new Civil Procedure Code. However, the power to authorize claim amendments may be inferred by the still recognized power of the court to extend procedural time limits to be benefit of the parties, under Art. 764 n.c.p.c. See Vincent and Guinchard (1999).

  11. 11.

    Annotated by Merlin (2016); Consolo (2015); Motto (2015); D’Alessandro (2016).

  12. 12.

    Consolo (2001).

  13. 13.

    Annotated by Consolo and Godio (2019).

  14. 14.

    On the influence of arbitration best practices upon procedural legislators, see the general reflections by Pfeiffer (2019).

  15. 15.

    See London Borough of Haringey v O’Brien (Practice and Procedure: Estoppel or Abuse of Process) [2016] UKEAT 0004_16_2212 (22 December 2016).

  16. 16.

    Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd v Zodiac Seats UK Ltd [2013] UKSC 46 (3 July 2013), quoting Arnold v National Westminster Bank plc [1991] 2 AC 93.

  17. 17.

    Habscheid (1985).

  18. 18.

    Hazard (2014).

  19. 19.

    On both conceptions, see Consolo (1989).

  20. 20.

    For another comment on the Collective proceedings chapter, Smith (2019).

  21. 21.

    On which see Consolo (2019).

  22. 22.

    Smith (2019).

  23. 23.

    For an overview, Rumenov (2019). Guo (2020). Teitz (2019).

  24. 24.

    Liakopoulos (2019).

  25. 25.

    van Loon (2019). A critical review of the worldwide case law on jurisdiction on internet torts may be found in Stella (2020).

  26. 26.

    See Supreme Court’s decision no. 16601 of 5 July 2017 annotated by Consolo (2017).

  27. 27.

    On the compatibility of such measures with the Brussels I Regulation regime, see EU Court of Justice, judgment of 18 October 2011, case C-406/09, Realchemie Nederland BV v Bayer CropScience AG, annotated by Mankowski (2012).

  28. 28.

    Franzina and Leandro (2019).

  29. 29.

    Deason (2019). Chua (2019).

  30. 30.

    “If the Convention merely obliged states to enforce settlement agreements but not also to treat settlement agreements as conclusive proof that a dispute had been resolved, many parties would not have been able to rely on the Convention to ensure that their settlement agreements would be given effect. The Convention’s relevance would have depended on how a particular dispute developed. A party that fulfilled its obligations under the settlement agreement could not have been assured that it would be able to avoid relitigating the dispute to secure compliance by the other party”: so, Schnabel (2019a, b).


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Consolo, C., Stella, M. (2024). Transnational Commercial Litigation. Discussing the 2020 Model Rules and the 2019 Hague and 2018 Singapore Conventions. In: Heidemann, M. (eds) The Transformation of Private Law – Principles of Contract and Tort as European and International Law. LCF Studies in Commercial and Financial Law, vol 2. Springer, Cham.

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