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Manifestations of Violence in the Causality of a Radicalization Episode

A Case Study on the Margins of La Paz-Bolivia

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Part of the Contributions to International Relations book series (CIR)


This article analyzes the manifestations of symbolic, structural, and epistemic violence in the causality of a radicalization episode. It will be argued that, despite the fact that a conflictive dynamic in the Bolivian context possesses democratic characteristics, the consummation in radicalization is contained by hierarchies and structures of power that allow its maturation and configuration; these structures give rise to the consummation of highly violent dynamics with human costs. Therefore, in the analysis of the episode through the stratified ontology formulated by critical realism, it is possible to identify elements that perpetuate and reproduce dynamics rooted in causality rather than in the radicalization episode.


  • Radicalization
  • Critical realism
  • Epistemic violence
  • Mallasa
  • Bolivia

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  1. 1.

    By retroduction, methodologically proposed by Danermark et al. (2002), we understand the reconstruction of the primary conditions for a particular phenomenon. Retroduction transcends the empirical events’ observation and conceptualizes conditions (2002). The reconstruction was carried out through an inferential analysis; this type of analysis allows theorizing the characteristics of the mechanisms and structures found in the properties that constitute causality of the radicalization episode. In other words, we reconstruct the system of social positions, norms, laws, and the acquired social and cultural dispositions (habitus) that structured a particular action (2002, p. 98), building a transfactual argumentation based on the theory of violence and its manifestations.

  2. 2.

    This information is part of personal experience and can also be contrasted with the factual reconstruction reports of Méndez et al. (2021) and with the report “Relato de un pueblo” of the Permanent Assembly of Human Rights in Bolivia (APDHB, 2021).


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Suxo, M.F.C. (2023). Manifestations of Violence in the Causality of a Radicalization Episode. In: Beck, D., Renner-Mugono, J. (eds) Radicalization and Variations of Violence. Contributions to International Relations. Springer, Cham.

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